# Thermodynamics

## 1

### Note #1

Thermodynamics Is A Branch Of Physics Concerned With Heat And Temperature And Their Relation To Energy And Work It Defines Macroscopic Variables, Such As Internal Energy, Entropy, And Pressure, That Partly Describe A Body Of Matter Or Radiation

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• Syllabus

Module – I:                                                                                         (9Hours)

1. Basic concepts and definition: Scope of Thermodynamics, Macroscopic and Microscopic approaches; Definition of Fixed mass (closed systems) and Control volume(open system), Properties (extensive and Intensive), State and its representation on a property diagram, Process and its representation, Cyclic process (or cycle) and its representation, Characteristics of properties (point and path function);Reversible and  Irreversible processes; Thermal, mechanical and Chemical equilibrium, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and temperature, Measurement of temperature and calibration of thermometers, the  ideal gas temperature scale, Measurement of pressure, Bourdon pressure gage and manometers, gage and absolute pressure.

2. Ideal gages and their P-V-T relations, Gas mixtures

3. Energy Transfer: Work  Transfer (definition and calculation), Different modes of work, Displacement Work for various process, Heat Transfer; Modes of heat transfer, Basic laws in conduction, convection and radiation, combined modes of heat transfer with examples.

Module-II:                                                                                          (13 hours)

4. First Law of Thermodynamics: i      Formal statement (using cyclic processes), First law for processes of fixed masses(closed systems) and introduction of internal energy as a thermodynamics property, Introduction of enthalpy as a thermodynamic property; Definition of  specific heats and their use in calculation of internal energy and enthalpy with emphasis on ideal gages. ii   Application of First Law to control volumes; Nozzle, Diffuser, Compressor, Turbine, Throttling device, Heat Exchanger.(only steady flow need be considered)

5. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin- Planck and Clausius statements of Second Law, Reversible and irreversible engines and their efficiency, Entropy concepts and the principle of entropy increase.

Module-III:                                                                                         (13 hours)

6. Properties of pure substances:p-v, p-T, T-S, h-S  diagram for steam, different types of steam, Introduction to steam tables with respect to specific volume, pressure, temperature, enthalpy and entropy

7. Application of thermodynamics: Air compressors, steam power plant, Refrigerators and Heat pump, I.C. Engines (Brief   Description of different components of above mentioned systems and working principles with Schematic diagram only)

## A brief summary

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work It defines macroscopic variables such as internal energy entropy and pressure that partly describe a body of matter or radiation It states that the behavior of those variables is subject to general constraints that are common to all materials not the peculiar properties of particular materials These general constraints are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics Thermodynamics describes the bulk behavior of the body not the microscopic behaviors of the very large numbers of its microscopic constituents such as molecules Its laws are explained by statistical mechanics in terms of the microscopic constituents

## What you will learn

Thermodynamics Engineering Thermodynamics thermodynamics notes thermodynamics for engineering