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Transportation Engineering 1

by Shweta SharmaShweta Sharma
Type: NoteInstitute: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University Course: B.Tech Specialization: Civil EngineeringOffline Downloads: 750Views: 19707Uploaded: 1 year ago

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Transportation Engineering 1 by Shweta Sharma

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Shweta Sharma
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Lecture-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview From the beginning of history, human sensitivity has revealed an urge for mobility leading to a measure of Society's progress. The history of this mobility or transport is the history of civilization. For any country to develop with right momentum modern and efficient Transport as a basic infrastructure is a must. Transport (British English) or transportation (American English) is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). 1.2 Means of Transport Fig.1.1 Means of Transport 1.3. Advantage and Disadvantage Different Modes of Transport (A) Road Transport Advantages 1. Less Capital Outlay 2. Door to Door Service 3. Service in Rural Areas 4. Flexible Service 5. Suitable for Short Distance 6. Lesser Risk of Damage in Transit 7. Saving in Packing Cost 8. Rapid Speed 9. Less Cost Disadvantages 1. Seasonal Nature 2. Accidents and Breakdowns 3. Unsuitable for Long Distance and Bulky Traffic 4. Slow Speed 5. Lack of Organisation * Under revision
10. Private Owned Vehicles 11. Feeder to other Modes of Transport (B) Railway Transport Advantages 1. Dependable 2. Better Organised 3. High Speed over Long Distances 4. Suitable for Bulky and Heavy Goods 5. Cheaper Transport 6. Safety 7. Larger Capacity 8. Public Welfare 9. Administrative Facilities of Government 10. Employment Opportunities Disadvantages 1. Huge Capital Outlay 2. Lack of Flexibility 3. Lack of Door to Door Service 4. Monopoly 5. Unsuitable for Short Distance and Small Loads 6. Booking Formalities 7. No Rural Service 8. Under-utilised Capacity 9. Centralised Administration (C) Air Transport Advantages 1. High Speed 2. Comfortable and Quick Services 3. No Investment in Construction of Track 4. No Physical Barriers 5. Easy Access 6. Emergency Services 7. Quick Clearance 8. Most Suitable for Carrying Light Goods of High Value 9. National Defence 10. Space Exploration Disadvantages 1. Very Costly 2. Small Carrying Capacity 3. Uncertain and Unreliable 4. Breakdowns and Accidents 5. Large Investment 6. Specialised Skill 7. Unsuitable for Cheap and Bulky Goods 8. Legal Restrictions 1.4. Elements of transport The movement of goods or passenger traffic, through rail, sea, air or road transport requires adequate infrastructure facilities for the free flow from the place of origin to the place of destination. Irrespective of modes, every transport system has some common elements: a) Vehicle or carrier to carry passenger or goods b) Route or path for movement of carriers c) Terminal facilities for loading and unloading of goods and passengers from carriers d) Prime Mover e) Transit time and cost f) Cargo * Under revision
These elements influence the effectiveness of different modes of transport and their utility to users. • Vehicles: The dimension of vehicles, its capacity and type are some of the factors, which influence the selection of a transport system for movement of goods from one place to the other. • Routes: Routes play an important role in movement of carriers from one point to another point. It may be surface roads, navigable waterways and roadways. Availability of well-designed and planned routes without any obstacle for movement of transport vehicles in specific routes, is a vital necessity for smooth flow of traffic. • Terminal Facilities: - The objective of transportation cant be fulfilled unless proper facilities are available for loading and unloading of goods or entry and exit of passengers from carrier. Terminal facilities are to be provided for loading and unloading of trucks, wagons etc on a continuous basis. • Prime Mover: - The power utilized for moving of vehicles for transportation of cargo from one place to another is another important aspect of the total movement system. • Transit time and cost: - Transportation involve time and cost. The time element is a valid factor for determining the effectiveness of a particular mode of transport. The transit time of available system of transportation largely determines production and consumption pattern of perishable goods in an economy. • Cargo: - Transportation basically involves movement of cargo from one place to another. Hence, nature and size of cargo constitute the basis of any goods transport system. 1.4 Major disciplines of transportation Transportation engineering can be broadly consisting of the four major parts: 1. Transportation Planning 2. Geometric Design 3. Pavement Design 4. Traffic Engineering * Under revision
Lecture 2 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA 2.1 Overview Road network provides the arterial network to facilitate trade, transport, social integration and economic development. It facilitates specialization, extension of markets and exploitation of economies of scale. It is used for the smooth conveyance of both people and goods. Transportation by road has the advantage over other means of transport because of its easy accessibility, flexibility of operations, door-to-door service and reliability. Consequently, passenger and freight movement in India over the years have increasingly shifted towards roads vis-à-vis other means of transport. 2.2 History of highway engineering The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient times. Roads in Rome were constructed in a large scale and it radiated in many directions helping them in military operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in road construction. In this section we will see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc. 2.2.1 Ancient Roads The most primitive mode of transport was by foot. These human pathways would have been developed for specific purposes leading to camp sites, food, streams for drinking water etc. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization led to the development of animal drawn vehicles. To provide adequate strength to carry the wheels, the new ways tended to follow the sunny drier side of a path. After the invention of wheel, animal drawn vehicles were developed and the need for hard surface road emerged. Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated as old as 3500 BC. The earliest authentic record of road was found from Assyrian empire constructed about 1900 BC. 2.2.2 Roman roads The earliest large scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an extensive system of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. Romans recognized that the fundamentals of good road construction were to provide good drainage, good material and good workmanship. Their roads were very durable, and some still exist. The roads were bordered on both sides by longitudinal drains. A typical corss section is shown in Fig.2.1. This was a raised formation up to a 1 meter high and 15 m wide and was constructed with materials excavated during the side drain construction. This was then topped with a sand leveling course. In the case of heavy traffic, a surface course of large 250 mm thick hexagonal ag stones were provided They * Under revision

Lecture Notes