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Note for Applied Chemistry - CHEM by Yasala Vamshidhar

  • Applied Chemistry - CHEM
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LECTURE NOTES ON ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY I B. Tech I semester Mr. M Praveen Assistant Professor FRESHMAN ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (Autonomous) Dundigal, Hyderabad - 500 043 ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY (Common for all Branches) 1

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Semester: I Course Code IA16-A1805 Category Foundation Contact Classes: 45 Tutorial Classes: Nil Hours / Week L 3 T - P - Credits C 3 Practical Classes: Nil Maximum Marks CIE 30 SEE 70 Total 100 Total Classes: 45 Goal: Inculcate basic principles of chemistry aspects in different disciplines of engineering. Objectives: The course should enable the students to: I. Apply the electrochemical principles in batteries. II. Understand the fundamentals of corrosion and development of different techniques in corrosion control. III. Analysis of water for its various parameters and its significance in industrial applications. IV. Improve the fundamental science and engineering principles relevant to materials. UNIT-I ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND BATTERIES Hours: 10 Electrochemistry: Basic concepts of electrochemistry; Conductance: Specific, equivalent and molar conductance and effect of dilution on conductance; Electrochemical cells: Galvanic cell (daniel cell); Electrode potential; Electrochemical series and its applications; Nernst equation; Types of electrodes: Calomel electrode, quinhydrone electrode; Batteries: Classification of batteries, primary cells (dry cells) and secondary cells (lead-acid battery, Ni-Cd cell), applications of batteries, numerical problems. UNIT-II CORROSION AND ITS CONTROL Hours: 08 Corrosion: Introduction, causes and effects of corrosion; Theories of corrosion: Chemical and electrochemical corrosion with mechanism; Factors affecting the rate of corrosion: Nature of the metal and nature of the environment; Types of corrosion: Waterline and crevice corrosion; Corrosion control methods: Cathodic protection- sacrificial anodic protection and impressed current cathodic protection; Surface coatings: Metallic coatings, methods of application of metallic coatingshot dipping(galvanizing, tinning), electroplating(copper plating); Organic coatings: Paints, its constituents and their functions. Hours: 09 UNIT-III WATER TECHNOLOGY Water: Sources and impurities of water, hardness of water, expression of hardness-units; Types of hardness: Temporary hardness, permanent hardness and numerical problems; Estimation of temporary and permanent hardness of water by EDTA method; Determination of dissolved oxygen by Winkler’s method; Boiler troubles: Priming, foaming, scales, sludges and caustic embrittlement. Treatment of water: Internal treatment of boiler feed water- carbonate, calgon and phosphate conditioning, softening of water by Zeolite process and Ion exchange process; Potable water-its specifications, steps involved in the treatment of potable water, Sterilization of potable water by chlorination and ozonization, purification of water by reverse osmosis process. UNIT-IV MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Hours: 10 Materials chemistry: Polymers-classification with examples, polymerization-addition, condensation and co-polymerization; Plastics: Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics; Compounding of plastics; Preparation, properties and applications of Polyvinylchloride, Teflon, Bakelite and Nylon-6, 6; Rubbers: Natural rubber its process and vulcanization; Elastomers: Buna-s and Thiokol rubber; Fibers: Characteristics of fibers, Preparation properties and applications of Dacron; Characteristics of fiber reinforced plastics; Cement: Composition of Portland cement, setting and hardening of Portland cement; Lubricants: Classification with examples, properties- viscosity, flash, fire, cloud and pour point; Refractories: Characteristics and classification with examples. UNIT-V FUELS AND COMBUSTION Hours: 08 Fuel: Definition, classification of fuels and characteristics of a good fuels; Solid fuels: Coal, analysis of coal- proximate and ultimate analysis; Liquid fuels: Petroleum and its refining; Cracking: Fixed bed catalytic cracking; Knocking: Octane and cetane numbers; Gaseous fuels: Composition, characteristics and applications of Natural gas, LPG and CNG; Combustion: Calorific value-Gross calorific value(GCV) and Net calorific value(NCV), calculation of air quantity required for complete combustion of fuel, numerical problems. Text Books: 1. P. C. Jain, Monica Jain, “Engineering Chemistry”, Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company, 15th Edition, 2015. 2. Shasi Chawla, “Text Book of Engineering Chemistry”, Dhantpat Rai Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1st Edition, 2

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2011. Reference Books: 1. B. Siva Shankar, “Engineering Chemistry”, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Limited, 3rd Edition, 2015. 2. S. S. Dara, Mukkanti, “Text of Engineering Chemistry”, S. Chand & Co, New Delhi, 12 th Edition, 2006. 3. C. V. Agarwal, C. P. Murthy, A. Naidu, “Chemistry of Engineering Materials”, Wiley India, 5th Edition, 2013. 4. R. P. Mani, K. N. Mishra, “Chemistry of Engineering Materials”, Cengage Learning, 3rd Edition, 2015. Web References: 1. www.tndte.com 2. nptel.ac.in/downloads 3. www.scribd.com 4. cuiet.info 5. www.sbtebihar.gov.in 6. www.ritchennai.org E-Text Books: 1. Corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov/electrochem_cells.htm 2. www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/applychem/watertreatment.html 3. www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/college-to-career/areas-of-chemistry/polymer-chemistry.html 4. www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/fossil.htm 5. Library.njit.edu/research helpdesk/subject guides/chemistry.php Unit - I 3

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Electro Chemistry and Corrosion Introduction:- Chemistry is the Study of matter, its properties and the changes it may undergo. All matter is electrical in nature. An atom is made up of sub atomic particles like electors, protons and neutrons etc. Electro chemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the transformation of electrical energy into chemical energy or chemical into electrical energy. 1.1.1 Concept of electrochemistry: Electrical Conduction: The substances are divided into 4 types depending upon their capability of flow of electrons. i) Conductors: The Substances which allows electricity to pass through them are called conductors. Ex :- Metals, metal sulphides, acids, alkalis, salt sol. and fused salts The electrical conductors are of two types. 1. Metallic or Electronic conductors. 2. Electrolytic conductors ii) Non-conductors: The substances which do not allow electricity are called non-conductors. Ex: Pure water, dry wood, rubber, paper, non-metals etc. iii) Semi conductors: The substances which partially conduct electricity are called semiconductors. The conducting properties of semi-conducting properties are increased by the addition of certain impurities called “dopping”. Ex: ‘si’ and addition of V group elements like ‘p’ ‘si’ produces n-type semi-conductor. On addition of iii group element like ‘B’, Al, ‘si’ produces p-type of semi-conductor. 4

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