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Note for High Voltage DC Transmission - HVDC By JNTU Heroes

  • High Voltage DC Transmission - HVDC
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  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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High Voltage Direct Current Transmission 185 The largest thyristors used in converter valves have blocking voltages of the order of kilovolts and currents of the order 100s of amperes. In order to obtain higher voltages the thyristor valve uses a single series string of these thyristors. With higher current ratings required, the valve utilizes thyristors directly connected in parallel on a common heat sink. The largest operational converter stations have ratings of the order of gigawatts and operate at voltages of 100s of kilovolts, and maybe up to 1000 km in length. The thyristors are mostly air cooled but may be oil cooled, water cooled or Freon cooled. With air cooled and oil cooled thyristors the same medium is used as insulant. With the Freon cooled thyristors, SF6 may be used for insulation, leading to the design of a compact thyristor valve. Unlike an a.c. transmission line which requires a transformer at each end, a d.c. transmission line requires a convertor at each end. At the sending end rectification is carried out, where as at the receiving end inversion is carried out. 11.1 Comparison of a.c and d.c transmission 11.1.1 Advantages of d.c. (a) More power can be transmitted per conductor per circuit. The capabilities of power transmission of an a.c. link and a d.c. link are different. For the same insulation, the direct voltage Vd is equal to the peak value (√2 x rms value) of the alternating voltage Vd. Vd = √2 Va For the same conductor size, the same current can transmitted with both d.c. and a.c. if skin effect is not considered. Id = Ia Thus the corresponding power transmission using 2 conductors with d.c. and a.c. are as follows. d c power per conductor Pd = Vd Id a c power per conductor Pa = Va Ia cos 3 The greater power transmission with d.c. over a.c. is given by the ratio of powers. Pd = _√2__ cos 3 Pa = H GDWSI XQLW\ GDWSI  J In practice, a.c. transmission is carried out using either single circuit or double circuit 3 phase transmission using 3 or 6 conductors. In such a case the above ratio for power must be multiplied by 2/3 or by 4/3. In general, we are interested in transmitting a given quantity of power at a given insulation level, at a given efficiency of transmission. Thus for the same power transmitted P, same losses PL and same peak voltage V, we can determine the reduction of conductor cross-section Ad over Aa. 2

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186 High Voltage Engineering - J R Lucas, 2001 Let Rd and Ra be the corresponding values of conductor resistance for d.c. and a.c. respectively, neglecting skin resistance. For d.c current = P Vm 2 2 power loss PL = (P/Vm) Rd = (P/Vm) .(!O$d) For a.c current = power loss PL = = √2 P . Vm cos 3 P = (Vm/√2) cos 3 [√2P/(Vm cos3 @ Ra 2 2 (P/Vm) .(!O$a cos 3 2 2 Equating power loss for d.c. and a.c. 2 (P/Vm) .(!O$d) = 2 (P/Vm) .(!O$a cos 3 2 2 This gives the result for the ratio of areas as H GDWSI XQLW\ GDWSI  J The result has been calculated at unity power factor and at 0.8 lag to illustrate the effect of power factor on the ratio. It is seen that only one-half the amount of copper is required for the same power transmission at unity power factor, and less than one-third is required at the power factor of 0.8 lag. Ad Aa = cos 3 2 2 = (b) Use of Ground Return Possible In the case of hvdc transmission, ground return (especially submarine crossing) may be used, as in the case of a monopolar d.c. link. Also the single circuit bipolar d.c. link is more reliable, than the corresponding a.c. link, as in the event of a fault on one conductor, the other conductor can continue to operate at reduced power with ground return. For the same length of transmission, the impedance of the ground path is much less for d.c. than for the corresponding a.c. because d.c. spreads over a much larger width and depth. In fact, in the case of d.c. the ground path resistance is almost entirely dependant on the earth electrode resistance at the two ends of the line, rather than on the line length. However it must be borne in mind that ground return has the following disadvantages. The ground currents cause electrolytic corrosion of buried metals, interfere with the operation of signalling and ships' compasses, and can cause dangerous step and touch potentials. (c) Smaller Tower Size The d.c. insulation level for the same power transmission is likely to be lower than the corresponding a.c. level. Also the d.c. line will only need two conductors whereas three conductors (if not six to obtain the same reliability) are required for a.c. Thus both electrical and mechanical considerations dictate a smaller tower. (d) Higher Capacity available for cables In contrast to the overhead line, in the cable breakdown occurs by puncture and not by external flashover. Mainly due to the absence of ionic motion, the working stress of the d.c. cable insulation may be 3 to 4 times higher than under a.c. 3

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High Voltage Direct Current Transmission 187 Also, the absence of continuous charging current in a d.c. cable permits higher active power transfer, especially over long lengths. (Charging current of the order of 6 A/km for 132 kV). Critical length at 132 kV ≈ 80 km for a.c cable. Beyond the critical length no power can be transmitted without series compensation in a.c. lines. Thus derating which is required in a.c. cables, thus does not limit the length of transmission in d.c. A comparison made between d.c. and a.c. for the transmission of about 1550 MVA is as follows. Six number a.c. 275 kV cables, in two groups of 3 cables in horizontal formation, require a total trench width of 5.2 m, whereas for two number d.c. ±500 kV cables with the same capacity require only a trench width of about 0.7 m. (e) No skin effect Under a.c. conditions, the current is not uniformly distributed over the cross section of the conductor. The current density is higher in the outer region (skin effect) and result in under utilisation of the conductor crosssection. Skin effect under conditions of smooth d.c. is completely absent and hence there is a uniform current in the conductor, and the conductor metal is better utilised. (f) Less corona and radio interference Since corona loss increases with frequency (in fact it is known to be proportional to f+25), for a given conductor diameter and applied voltage, there is much lower corona loss and hence more importantly less radio interference with d.c. Due to this bundle conductors become unnecessary and hence give a substantial saving in line costs. [Tests have also shown that bundle conductors would anyway not offer a significant advantage for d.c as the lower reactance effect so beneficial for a.c is not applicable for d.c.] (g) No Stability Problem The d.c. link is an asynchronous link and hence any a.c. supplied through converters or d.c. generation do not have to be synchronised with the link. Hence the length of d.c. link is not governed by stability. In a.c. links the phase angle between sending end and receiving end should not exceed 30o at full-load for o transient stability (maximum theoretical steady state limit is 90 ). Note: 5 5 0 θ = w √OFSHUNP  Œ[  [ ) rad/km ≈ (2 x 180 x 50)/(3 x 10 ) ≈ 0.06 /km o The phase angle change at the natural load of a line is thus 0.6 per 10 km. The maximum permissible length without compensation ≈ 30/0.06 = 500 km With compensation, this length can be doubled to 1000 km. (h) Asynchronous interconnection possible With a.c. links, interconnections between power systems must be synchronous. Thus different frequency systems cannot be interconnected. Such systems can be easily interconnected through hvdc links. For different frequency interconnections both convertors can be confined to the same station. In addition, different power authorities may need to maintain different tolerances on their supplies, even though nominally of the same frequency. This option is not available with a.c. With d.c. there is no such problem. 4

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188 High Voltage Engineering - J R Lucas, 2001 (i) Lower short circuit fault levels When an a.c. transmission system is extended, the fault level of the whole system goes up, sometimes necessitating the expensive replacement of circuit breakers with those of higher fault levels. This problem can be overcome with hvdc as it does not contribute current to the a.c. short circuit beyond its rated current. In fact it is possible to operate a d.c. link in "parallel" with an a.c. link to limit the fault level on an expansion. In the event of a fault on the d.c line, after a momentary transient due to the discharge of the line capacitance, the current is limited by automatic grid control. Also the d.c. line does not draw excessive current from the a.c. system. (j) Tie line power is easily controlled In the case of an a.c. tie line, the power cannot be easily controlled between the two systems. With d.c. tie lines, the control is easily accomplished through grid control. In fact even the reversal of the power flow is just as easy. 11.1.2 Inherent problems associated with hvdc (a) Expensive convertors Expensive Convertor Stations are required at each end of a d.c. transmission link, whereas only transformer stations are required in an a.c. link. (b) Reactive power requirement Convertors require much reactive power, both in rectification as well as in inversion. At each convertor the reactive power consumed may be as much at 50% of the active power rating of the d.c. link. The reactive power requirement is partly supplied by the filter capacitance, and partly by synchronous or static capacitors that need to be installed for the purpose. (c) Generation of harmonics Convertors generate a lot of harmonics both on the d.c. side and on the a.c. side. Filters are used on the a.c. side to reduce the amount of harmonics transferred to the a.c. system. On the d.c. system, smoothing reactors are used. These components add to the cost of the convertor. (d) Difficulty of circuit breaking Due to the absence of a natural current zero with d.c., circuit breaking is difficult. This is not a major problem in single hvdc link systems, as circuit breaking can be accomplished by a very rapid absorbing of the energy back into the a.c. system. (The blocking action of thyristors is faster than the operation of mechanical circuit breakers). However the lack of hvdc circuit breakers hampers multi-terminal operation. (e) Difficulty of voltage transformation Power is generally used at low voltage, but for reasons of efficiency must be transmitted at high voltage. The absence of the equivalent of d.c. transformers makes it necessary for voltage transformation to carried out on the a.c. side of the system and prevents a purely d.c. system being used. 5

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