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Metallurgy and Materials Science

by Jntu Heroes
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Metallurgy and Materials Science by Jntu Heroes

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NOTES SUBJECT: MATERIAL SCIENCE 1
INDEX Unit Page No. I 3-27 II 28-62 III 63-95 IV 96-112 V 113-139 2
UNIT – I 3
Introduction Materials science, also commonly known as materials science and engineering, is an interdisciplinary field which deals with the discovery and design of new materials. This relatively new scientific field involves studying materials through the materials paradigm (synthesis, structure, properties and performance). It incorporates elements of physics and chemistry, and is at the forefront of nano science and nanotechnology research. In recent years, materials science has become more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. Importance of Materials A material is defined as a substance (most often a solid, but other condensed phases can be included) that is intended to be used for certain applications. There are a myriad of materials around us—they can be found in anything from buildings to spacecrafts. Materials can generally be divided into two classes: crystalline and non-crystalline. The traditional examples of materials are metals, ceramics and polymers. New and advanced materials that are being developed include semiconductors, nanomaterials, biomaterials etc. The material of choice of a given era is often a defining point. Phrases such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Steel Age are great examples. Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and (likely) ceramics and the use of fire. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, and silica and carbon materials, used in the construction of space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. Materials science has driven, and been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as plastics, semiconductors, and biomaterials. 4

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