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Note for Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1 By JNTU Heroes

  • Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING Highway development in India Necessity for highway planning Different road development plans Classification of roads Road network patterns Highway Alignment Factors affecting alignment Engineering surveys Drawing and reports Highway project CHAPTER 2: HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN Importance of Geometric Design Factors affecting highway geometric design Design controls and CriteriaHighway Cross Section ElementsSight Distance ElementsStopping sight Distance, Overtaking Sight Distance Intermediate Sight Distance Design of Horizontal Alignment Design of Super elevation Extra widening Design of Transition Curves Design of Vertical alignment Gradients- Vertical curves

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ICHAPTER 3: TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND REGULATION Basic Parameters of Traffic Volume, Speed and density Traffic volume studies-Data collection and presentation Speed studies –Data collection and presentationOrigin and Destinations studies, Parking Studies On street and off-street parking Road Accidents – Causes and Preventive measures Accident Data Recording Condition Diagram and Collision Diagrams Traffic Signs – Types and Specifications Road markings-Need for Road Markings Types of Road MarkingsDesign of Traffic Signals -Webster method. CHAPTER 4: INTERSECTION DESIGN Types of Intersections Conflicts at Intersections Requirements of At –Grade intersectionTypes of at-Grade IntersectionsChannelization -Traffic Islands Types of Grade Separated Intersections Rotary Intersection –concept of Rotary Design factors of rotary Advantages and limitations of rotary intersections CHAPTER 5: HIGHWAY MATERIAL, CONSTRUCTION ANDMAINTENANCE: Highway Material characterization Subgrade soil Stone aggregate

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Bitumen materials Construction of gravel road Construction of water bound macadam road Construction of bituminous pavements Surface dressing Bitumen bound macadam Bituminous concrete Construction of cement concrete pavements Construction of joints in cement concrete pavements Joint filter and seal Pavement failures Maintenance of highways Highway Drainage

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CHAPTER 1 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING Overview Road transport is one of the most common modes of transport. Roads in the form of track ways, human pathways etc. were used even from the pre-historic times. Since then many experiments were going on to make the riding safe and comfort. Thus road construction became an inseparable part of many civilizations and empires. In this chapter we will see the different generations of road and their characteristic features. Also we will discuss about the highway planning in India. History of highway engineering The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient times. Roads in Rome were constructed in a large scale and it radiated in many directions helping them in military operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in road construction. In this section we will see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc. Ancient Roads The first mode of transport was by foot. These human pathways would have been developed for specific purposes leading to camp sites, food, streams for drinking water etc. The next major mode of transport was the use of animals for transporting both men and materials. Since these loaded animals required more horizontal and vertical clearances than the walking man, track ways emerged. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization led to the development of animal drawn vehicles. Then it became necessary that the road surface should be capable of carrying greater loads. Thus roads with harder surfaces emerged. To provide adequate strength to carry the wheels, the new ways tended to follow the sunny drier side of a path. These have led to the development of foot-paths. After the invention of wheel, animal drawn vehicles were developed and the need for hard surface road emerged. Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated as old as 3500 BC. The earliest authentic record of road was found from Assyrian empire constructed about 1900 BC. Roman roads The earliest large scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an extensive system of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. They were a remarkable achievement and provided travel times across 2.7 m

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