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# Note for DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN - DESIGN By shreyansh shankhdhar

• DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN - DESIGN
• Note
• Electronics and Communication Engineering
• 15 Topics
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Digital Logic Design Version 4.6 printed on February 2016 First published on August 2006

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Background and Acknowledgements This material has been developed for the first course in Digital Logic Design. The content is derived from the author’s educational, technical and management experiences, in-addition to teaching experience. Many other sources, including the following specific sources, have also informed by the content and format of the following material: Katz, R. Contemporary Logic Design. (2005) Pearson. Wakerly, I. Digital Design. (2006) Prentice Hall. Sandige, R. Digital Design Essentials. (2002) Prentice Hall. Nilsson, J. Electrical Circuits. (2004) Pearson. I would like to give special thanks to my students and colleagues for their valued contributions in making this material a more effective learning tool. I invite the reader to forward any corrections, additional topics, examples and problems to me for future Thanks, Izad Khormaee www.EngrCS.com © 2014 Izad Khormaee, All Rights Reserved. Digital Logic Design Page 2

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Contents Chapter 1. Number Systems, Number Representations, and Codes ................................................ 6 1.1. Key concepts and Overview ............................................................................................................. 6 1.2. Digital vs. Analog .............................................................................................................................. 7 1.3. Digital Design Overview (from Transistor to Super Computer) ........................................................ 9 1.4. Design Methodologies .................................................................................................................... 11 1.5. Number Systems (Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal) .............................................................. 12 1.6. Base Conversions ........................................................................................................................... 14 1.7. Signed Binary Number Conventions .............................................................................................. 17 1.8. Binary Arithmetic ............................................................................................................................. 20 1.9. Binary Codes .................................................................................................................................. 22 1.10. DC Electrical Circuit Fundamentals .............................................................................................. 24 1.11. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 28 1.12. Problems ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Chapter 2. Boolean Algebra, Functions, and Minimization .............................................................. 30 2.1. Key concepts and Overview ........................................................................................................... 30 2.2. Logic Gates ..................................................................................................................................... 31 2.3. Huntington’s First Set of Postulates ............................................................................................... 34 2.4. Principle of Duality .......................................................................................................................... 35 2.5. Boolean Functions .......................................................................................................................... 36 2.6. Boolean Algebra Theorems ............................................................................................................ 38 2.7. Canonical or Standard Form of Functions ....................................................................................... 41 2.8. Methods of Function Minimization (reducing the number of literals in an expression) .................. 46 2.9. Karnaugh-map or K-map ................................................................................................................ 48 2.10. Special Case: “Don’t Care” Terms ................................................................................................ 52 2.11. XOR Properties and Applications ................................................................................................. 53 2.12. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 54 2.13. Problems ....................................................................................................................................... 55 Chapter 3. Analyzing and Synthesizing Combinational Logic Circuits .......................................... 56 3.1. Key concepts and Overview ........................................................................................................... 56 3.2. Standard Logic and Schematic Layout (Review) ........................................................................... 57 3.3. Designing Logic Circuits ................................................................................................................. 62 3.4. Combinational Logic Analysis and Design ..................................................................................... 66 3.5. Compressing Truth Tables and K-maps ......................................................................................... 67 3.6. Glitches and Their Causes ............................................................................................................. 71 3.7. Types of Functions and Delays ...................................................................................................... 74 3.8. Beyond Standard Logic: Applications ............................................................................................. 76 3.9. Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) ............................................................................................ 85 3.10. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 94 3.11. Problems ...................................................................................................................................... 95 Chapter 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. Introduction to Feedback Circuits and Sequential Logic Analysis ........................... 96 Key concepts and Overview ........................................................................................................... 96 SR Flip-Flops .................................................................................................................................. 97 Asynchronous Sequential Logic Issues .......................................................................................... 99 Finite State machine ..................................................................................................................... 101 Additional Flip Flops ..................................................................................................................... 107 Sequential Circuit Analysis ........................................................................................................... 112 Debouncing Mechanical Switches ................................................................................................ 118 Digital Logic Design Page 3

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4.8. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 120 4.9. Problems ....................................................................................................................................... 121 Chapter 5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. Chapter 6. 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. Sequential Circuit Design & Techniques .................................................................... 122 Key concepts and Overview ......................................................................................................... 122 Synchronous Finite State Machine Design (Classical Design) .................................................... 123 State Assignment Encoding, Shift Register Counters, and Adding an Enable Input ................... 133 Inspection Design Methods for Finite State Machines ................................................................. 137 FSM Design Examples ................................................................................................................. 143 Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 151 Problems ....................................................................................................................................... 152 Finite State Machine Optimization & Testing ............................................................ 153 Key concepts and Overview ......................................................................................................... 153 State Minimization and FSM Design Process .............................................................................. 154 State Minimization Using an Implication Chart (or Table) ............................................................ 155 Design for Testability (DFT) .......................................................................................................... 160 Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 163 Problems ....................................................................................................................................... 164 Chapter 7 “Verilog”. Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog) ...................................... 165 7.1. Key concepts and Overview ......................................................................................................... 165 7.2. History ........................................................................................................................................... 166 7.3. Introduction to Verilog HDL........................................................................................................... 167 7.4. Syntax ........................................................................................................................................... 169 7.5. Assignments ................................................................................................................................. 172 7.6. Operators ...................................................................................................................................... 176 7.7. Types and Variable Declarations .................................................................................................. 178 7.8. Flow Control Statements .............................................................................................................. 180 7.9. Code Modularization ..................................................................................................................... 182 7.10. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................. 183 7.11. Problems ..................................................................................................................................... 184 Chapter 8 “VHDL”. VHDL Hardware Description Language (VHDL) ............................................. 185 8.1. Key concepts and Overview ......................................................................................................... 185 8.2. History ........................................................................................................................................... 186 8.3. Steps in VHDL design................................................................................................................... 187 8.4. Entity and Architecture.................................................................................................................. 189 8.5. Declarations .................................................................................................................................. 191 8.6. Operators ...................................................................................................................................... 198 8.7. Behavioral Design ......................................................................................................................... 200 8.8. Dataflow Design Elements............................................................................................................ 202 8.9. Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 206 8.10. Problems ..................................................................................................................................... 207 Chapter 9. 9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 9.5. 9.6. 9.7. 9.8. Commercial Digital Integrated Circuits and Interface Design .................................. 209 Key concepts and Overview ......................................................................................................... 209 Output Types ................................................................................................................................ 210 Logic Families ............................................................................................................................... 214 Multiplexer (MUX)/DeMultiplexer (DMUX) Design ....................................................................... 215 Adder & Subtractor Design ........................................................................................................... 219 Multiplier Design ........................................................................................................................... 223 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Design .............................................................................................. 224 Additional Resources .................................................................................................................... 225 Digital Logic Design Page 4