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Note for Environmental Studies - ES By JNTU Heroes

  • Environmental Studies - ES
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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Unit 2 : Natural Resources : Renewable and non-renewable resources : Natural resources and associated problems. a) Forest resources : Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forest and tribal people. b) Water resources : Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems. c) Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies. d) Food resources : World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies. e) Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies. f) Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification. • Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. • Equitable use of resoureces for sustainable lifestyles. (8 lectures) Unit 3 : Ecosystems • Concept of an ecosystem. III

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• Structure and function of an ecosystem. • Producers, consumers and decomposers. • Energy flow in the ecosystem. • Ecological succession. • Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. • Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem :a. Forest ecosystem b. Grassland ecosystem c. Desert ecosystem d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) (6 lectures) Unit 4 : Biodiversity and its conservation • Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. • Biogeographical classification of India • Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values • Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. • Inida as a mega-diversity nation IV

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• Hot-sports of biodiversity. • Threats to biodiversity : habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts. • Endangered and endemic species of India • Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. (8 lectures) Unit 5 : Environmental Pollution Definition • • Cause, effects and control measures of :a. Air pollution b. Water pollution c. Soil pollution d. Marine pollution e. Noise pollution f. Thermal pollution g. Nuclear hazards Solid waste Management : Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes. • Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. • Pollution case studies. • Diaster management : floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. (8 lectures) V

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Unit 6 : Social Issues and the Environment • From Unsustainable to Sustainable development • Urban problems related to energy • Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management • Resettlement and rahabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case Studies • Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions. • Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Case Studies. • Wasteland reclamation. • Consumerism and waste products. • Environment Protection Act. • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. • Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act • Wildlife Protection Act • Forest Conservation Act • Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. • Public awareness. (7 lectures) Unit 7 : Human Population and the Environment • Population growth, variation among nations. • Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme. VI

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