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Note for Geotechnical Engineering- 1 - GTE-1 By JNTU Heroes

  • Geotechnical Engineering- 1 - GTE-1
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  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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SYLLABUS Module –I Introduction: Origin of soils, formation of soils, clay mineralogy and soil structure, basic terminology and their relations, index properties of soils. Soil classification: Particle size distribution, use of particle size distribution curve, Particle size classification, textural classification, HRB classification, Unified classification system, Indian standard soil classification system, Field identification of soils. Soil moisture: Types of soil water, capillary tension, capillary siphoning. Stress conditions in soil: Total stress, pore pressure and effective stress. Module – II Permeability: Darcy’s law, permeability, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability (laboratory and field methods), permeability of stratified soil deposits. Estimation of yield from wells. Seepage analysis: Seepage pressure, quick condition, laplace equation for two –dimensional flow, flow net, properties and methods of construction of flow net, application of flow net, seepage through anisotropic soil and non-homogenous soil, seepage through earth dam. Module – III Soil compaction: Compaction mechanism, factors affecting compaction, effect of compaction on soil properties, density moisture content relationship in compaction test, standard and modified proctor compaction tests, field compaction methods, relative compaction, compaction control. Soil consolidation: Introduction, spring analogy, one dimensional consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test, determination of coefficient of consolidation. Module –IV Shear strength of soils: Mohr’s stress circle, theory of failure for soils, determination of shear strength (direct shear test, tri-axial compression test, unconfined compression test, van shear test), shear characteristics of cohesionless soils and cohesive soils. Stabilization of soil: Introduction, mechanical stabilization, cement stabilization, lime stabilization, bituminous stabilization, chemical stabilization, thermal stabilization, electrical stabilization, stabilization by grouting, use of geo-synthetic materials, reinforced earth. Reference Books: 1. Geotechnical Engineering, C. Venkatramaiah, New Age International publishers. 2. Geotechnical Engineering, T.N. Ramamurthy & T.G. Sitharam, S. Chand & Co. 3. Soil Mechanics, T.W. Lambe & Whiteman, Wiley Eastern Ltd, Nw Under Revision

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LECTURE 1 Introduction: The term "soil" can have different meanings, depending upon the field in which it is considered. To a geologist, it is the material in the relative thin zone of the Earth's surface within which roots occur, and which are formed as the products of past surface processes. The rest of the crust is grouped under the term "rock". To a pedologist, it is the substance existing on the surface, which supports plant life. To an engineer, it is a material that can be:     built on: foundations of buildings, bridges built in: basements, culverts, tunnels built with: embankments, roads, dams supported: retaining walls Soil Mechanics is a discipline of Civil Engineering involving the study of soil, its behaviour and application as an engineering material. Soil Mechanics is the application of laws of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with sediments and other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles, which are produced by the mechanical and chemical disintegration of rocks, regardless of whether or not they contain an admixture of organic constituents. Soil consists of a multiphase aggregation of solid particles, water, and air. This fundamental composition gives rise to unique engineering properties, and the description of its mechanical behavior requires some of the most classic principles of engineering mechanics. Engineers are concerned with soil's mechanical properties: permeability, stiffness, and strength. These depend primarily on the nature of the soil grains, the current stress, the water content and unit weight. Formation of Soils: Soil is formed from rock due to erosion and weathering action. Igneous rock is the basic rock formed from the crystallization of molten magma. This rock is formed either inside the earth or on the surface. These rocks undergo metamorphism under high temperature and pressure to form Metamorphic rocks. Both Igneous and metamorphic rocks are converted in to sedimentary rocks due to transportation to different locations by the agencies such as wind, water etc. Finally, near the surface millions of years of erosion and weathering converts rocks in to soil. Under Revision

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. Fig. Geologic Cycle of Soil Soils are formed from materials that have resulted from the disintegration of rocks by various processes of physical and chemical weathering. The nature and structure of a given soil depends on the processes and conditions that formed it:     Breakdown of parent rock: weathering, decomposition, erosion. Transportation to site of final deposition: gravity, flowing water, ice, wind. Environment of final deposition: flood plain, river terrace, glacial moraine, lacustrine or marine. Subsequent conditions of loading and drainage: little or no surcharge, heavy surcharge due to ice or overlying deposits, change from saline to freshwater, leaching, contamination. All soils originate, directly or indirectly, from different rock types. Weathering: Physical weathering reduces the size of the parent rock material, without any change in the original composition of the parent rock. Physical or mechanical processes taking place on the earth's surface include the actions of water, frost, temperature changes, wind and ice. They cause disintegration and the products are mainly coarse soils. The main processes involved are exfoliation, unloading, erosion, freezing, and thawing. The principal cause is climatic change. In exfoliation, the outer shell separates from the main rock. Heavy rain and wind cause erosion of the rock surface. Adverse temperature changes produce fragments due to different thermal coefficients of rock minerals. The effect is more for freeze-thaw cycles. Chemical weathering not only breaks up the material into smaller particles but alters the nature of the original parent rock itself. The main processes responsible are hydration, oxidation, and carbonation. New compounds are formed due to the chemical alterations. Rain water that comes in contact with the rock surface reacts to form hydrated oxides, carbonates and sulphates. If there is a volume increase, the disintegration continues. Due to leaching, water-soluble materials are washed away and rocks lose their cementing properties. Chemical weathering occurs in wet and warm conditions and consists of degradation by decomposition and/or alteration. The results of chemical weathering are generally fine soils with altered mineral grains. The effects of weathering and transportation mainly determine the basic nature of the soil (size, shape, composition Under Revision

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