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Note for Computer Programming - CP By JNTU Heroes

  • Computer Programming - CP
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS COMPUTER SYSTEMS “A Computer is an electronic device that stores, manipulates and retrieves the data.” We can also refer computer computes the information supplied to it and generates data. A System is a group of several objects with a process. For Example: Educational System involves teacher, students (objects). Teacher teaches subject to students i.e., teaching (process). Similarly a computer system can have objects and process. The following are the objects of computer System a) User ( A person who uses the computer) b) Hardware c) Software Hardware: Hardware of a computer system can be referred as anything which we can touch and feel. Example : Keyboard and Mouse. The hardware of a computer system can be classified as Input Devices(I/P) Processing Devices (CPU) Output Devices(O/P) KEYBOARD INPUT ALU, CU, MU CPU MONITOR OUTPUT ALU: It performs the Arithmetic and Logical Operations such as +,-,*,/ (Arithmetic Operators) &&, || ( Logical Operators) CU: Every Operation such as storing , computing and retrieving the data should be governed by the control unit. 2

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MU: The Memory unit is used for storing the data. The Memory unit is classified into two types. They are 1) Primary Memory 2) Secondary Memory Primary memory: The following are the types of memoruies which are treated as primary ROM: It represents Read Only Memory that stores data and instructions even when the computer is turned off. The Contents in the ROM can’t be modified once if they are written . It is used to store the BIOS information. RAM: It represents Random Access Memory that stores data and instructions when the computer is turned on. The contents in the RAM can be modified any no. of times by instructions. It is used to store the programs under execution. Cache memory: It is used to store the data and instructions referred by processor. Secondary Memory: The following are the different kinds of memories Magnetic Storage: The Magnetic Storage devices store information that can be read, erased and rewritten a number of times. Example: Floppy Disks, Hard Disks, Magnetic Tapes Optical Storage: The optical storage devices that use laser beams to read and write stored data. Example: CD(Compact Disk),DVD(Digital Versatile Disk) COMPUTER SOFTWARE Software of a computer system can be referred as anything which we can feel and see. Example: Windows, icons Computer software is divided in to two broad categories: system software and application software .System software manages the computer resources .It provides the interface between the hardware and the users. Application software, on the other hand is directly responsible for helping users solve their problems. System Software System software consists of programs that manage the hardware resources of a computer and perform required information processing tasks. These programs are divided into three classes: the operating system, system support, and system development. 3

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The operating system provides services such as a user interface, file and database access, and interfaces to communication systems such as Internet protocols. The primary purpose of this software is to keep the system operating in an efficient manner while allowing the users access to the system. System support software provides system utilities and other operating services. Examples of system utilities are sort programs and disk format programs. Operating services consists of programs that provide performance statistics for the operational staff and security monitors to protect the system and data. The last system software category, system development software, includes the language translators that convert programs into machine language for execution ,debugging tools to ensure that the programs are error free and computer –assisted software engineering(CASE) systems. Application software Application software is broken in to two classes: general-purpose software and application – specific software. General purpose software is purchased from a software developer and can be used for more than one application. Examples of general purpose software include word processors, database management systems ,and computer aided design systems. They are labeled general purpose because they can solve a variety of user computing problems. Application –specific software can be used only for its intended purpose. A general ledger system used by accountants and a material requirements planning system used by a manufacturing organization are examples of application-specific software. They can be used only for the task for which they were designed they cannot be used for other generalized tasks. The relationship between system and application software is shown below. In this figure, each circle represents an interface point .The inner core is hard ware. The user is represented by the out layer. To work with the system, the typical user uses some form of application software. The application software in turn interacts with the operating system, which is a part of the system software layer. The system software provides the direct interaction with the hard ware. The opening at the bottom of the figure is the path followed by the user who interacts directly with the operating system when necessary. 4

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COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS The word ‘compute’ is used to refer to the process of converting information to data. The advent of several new kinds of computers created a need to have different computing environments. The following are the different kinds of computing environments available 1. Personal Computing Environment 2. Time Sharing Environment 3. Client/Server Environment 4. Distributed Computing Environment Personal Computing Environment In 1971, Marcian E. Hoff, working for INTEL combined the basic elements of the central processing unit into the microprocessor. If we are using a personal computer then all the computer hardware components are tied together. This kind of computing is used to satisfy the needs of a single user, who uses the computer for the personal tasks. Ex: Personal Computer Time-Sharing Environment The concept of time sharing computing is to share the processing of the computer basing on the criteria time. In this environment all the computing must be done by the central computer. 5

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