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Note for Data Communication and Computer Network - DCCN By Amity Kumar

  • Data Communication and Computer Network - DCCN
  • Note
  • Amity University - AMITY
  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
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6 7 8 Unit 6: Network layer IPv4 Addresses IPv6 Addresses IPv4 protocol IPv6 Protocol Recommended questions Unit 7: Delivery & Forwarding Delivery Forwarding Unicast Routing Protocols Multicast Routing Protocols Recommended questions Unit 8: Transport layer Process – to – process Delivery User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Transmission Control Protocol Recommended questions 67 – 90 68 73 78 84 90 91– 103 92 93 94 102 103 104 – 119 105 108 111 119 Page 2

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PART A Unit 1: Network Architecture Hrs: 06 Syllabus: Section 1: Layered Tasks, OSI model, Layers in OSI model, TCP/IP Suite, Addressing Section 2: Telephone and cable networks for data transmission, Telephone Networks, Dial up modem, DSL, Cable TV for data transmission. Recommended readings: Text Book: Data Communication & Networking, B Forouzan, 4e, TMH Sec 1: Chapter 2 – page 27 to 50 Sec 2: Chapter 9 – page 241 to 260 Page 3

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1.1 Layered Tasks: Consider two friends who communicate through mail Fig (i): Tasks involved in sending a letter In the above fig (i), we have a sender, a receiver & a carrier that transports the letter. There is a hierarchy of tasks. At the sender site: The sender writes the letter, inserts the letter in an envelope, writes the sender & receiver addresses, and drops the letter in a mail box. Middle layer: The letter is picked up by a letter carrier and delivered to the post office. Lower Layer: The letter is sorted at the post office, a carrier transports the letter. On the way: The letter is then on its way to the recipient. On the way to the recipients local post office, the letter may actually go through a central office. In addition, it may be transported by truck, train, airplane, boat, or a combination of these. At the receiver site: Lower layer: The carrier transports the letter to the post office. Middle Layer: The letter is sorted & delivered to the recipients mailbox. Higher Layer: The receiver picks up the letter, opens the envelope, and reads it. Page 4

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Hierarchy: The task of transporting the letter between the sender and the receiver is done by the carrier. The tasks must be done in the order given in the hierarchy. At the sender site, the letter must be written and dropped in the mailbox before being picked up by the letter carrier and delivered to the post office. At the receiver site, the letter must be dropped in the recipient mailbox before being picked up & read by the recipient. Services: Each layer at the sending site uses the services of the layer immediately below it. The sender at the higher layer uses the services of the middle layer. The middle layer uses the services of the lower layer. The lower layer uses the services of the carrier. 1.2 The OSI model: Fig (ii): Seven layers of the OSI model The OSI model shown in fig (ii) is based on the proposal developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as a first step towards international standardization of the protocols used in the various layers. The model is called the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model because it deals with connecting open systems, i.e., systems that are open for communication with other systems. The purpose of the OSI model is to show how to facilitate communication between different systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. The OSI model is not a protocol; it is a model for understanding and designing a network architecture that is flexible, robust and interoperable. The OSI model is a layered framework for the design of network systems that allows communication between all types of computer systems. It consists of seven separate but related layers, each of which defines a part of the process of moving information across a network. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows: * A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed. Page 5

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