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# Note for Basic Electronics - BE by Amaravathi Gopagani

• Basic Electronics - BE
• Note
• 15 Topics
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Amaravathi Gopagani
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www.alljntuworld.in JNTU World JN TU W or ld Pulse and Integrated Circuits Lab Downloaded From JNTU World (http://www.alljntuworld.in)

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www.alljntuworld.in JNTU World Index 1. Linear Wave Shaping 2(a). Non Linear Wave Shaping-Clippers 3. Astable Multivibrator using Transistors 4. Monostable Multivibrator using Transistors or 5(a). Schmitt Trigger using Transistors ld 2(b). Non Linear Wave Shaping-Clampers 5(b). Schmitt Trigger Circuits- using IC 741 6. Measurement of op-Amp parameters W 7. Applications of Op-Amp 8. Instrumentation Amplifier using op-Amp 9. Waveform generation using op-amp (square & triangular) 10. Design Of Active Filters – Lpf, Hpf (First Order) TU 11. Applications of ic 555 timer ( Monostable &Astable multivibrators) 12. PLL Using 1C 565 13. IC723 Voltage Regulator 14. Design of VCO using IC 566 JN 15. 4 bit DAC using OP AMP 2 Downloaded From JNTU World (http://www.alljntuworld.in)

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www.alljntuworld.in JNTU World 1. Linear Wave Shaping Aim: i) To design a low pass RC circuit for the given cutoff frequency and obtain its frequency response. ii) To observe the response of the designed low pass RC circuit for the given square waveform for T<<RC,T=RC and T>>RC. To design a high pass RC circuit for the given cutoff frequency and obtain its frequency response. iv) ld iii) To observe the response of the designed high pass RC circuit for the given square Apparatus Required: Name of the Component/Equipment Capacitors CRO Specifications Quantity 1KΩ 1 2.2KΩ,16 KΩ 1 W Resistors or waveform for T<<RC, T=RC and T>>RC. Function generator 1 20MHz 1 1MHz 1 TU Theory: 0.01µF The process whereby the form of a non sinusoidal signal is altered by transmission through a linear network is called “linear wave shaping”. An ideal low pass circuit is one that allows all the input frequencies below a frequency called cutoff frequency fc and attenuates all those above this frequency. For practical low pass circuit (Fig.1) cutoff is set to occur at a frequency where the gain of the circuit falls by 3 dB from its maximum at very JN high frequencies the capacitive reactance is very small, so the output is almost equal to the input and hence the gain is equal to 1. Since circuit attenuates low frequency signals and allows high frequency signals with little or no attenuation, it is called a high pass circuit. Circuit Diagram: 3 Downloaded From JNTU World (http://www.alljntuworld.in)

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www.alljntuworld.in JNTU World ld Low Pass RC Circuit : Procedure: W or High Pass RC Circuit : A) Frequency response characteristics: 1 .Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 and apply a sinusoidal signal of amplitude of 2V p-p as input. TU 2. Vary the frequency of input signal in suitable steps 100 Hz to 1 MHz and note down the p-p amplitude of output signal. 3. Obtain frequency response characteristics of the circuit by finding gain at each frequency and plotting gain in dB vs frequency. 4. Find the cutoff frequency fc by noting the value of f at 3 dB down from the maximum gain JN B) Response of the circuit for different time constants: Time constant of the circuit RC= 0.0198 ms 1. Apply a square wave of 2v p-p amplitude as input. 2. Adjust the time period of the waveform so that T>>RC, T=RC,T<<RC and observe the output in each case. 3. Draw the input and output wave forms for different cases. Sample readings Low Pass RC Circuit Input Voltage: Vi=2 V(p-p) 4 Downloaded From JNTU World (http://www.alljntuworld.in)