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BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FOURTH EDITION C. L. Wadhwa Formerly Professor Department of Electrical Engineering Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi Formerly Dean Faculty of Technology University of Delhi, Delhi PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS New Delhi • Bangalore • Chennai • Cochin • Guwahati • Hydcrnbad Jalandhar • Kolkata • Lucknow • Mumbai • Ranchi Visi[ us ac www.newagepublishers.com
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To My mother, who taught me how to hold pen in my little fingers. My father, who taught me modesty and tolerance. My wife, a symbol of mutual trust and mutual respect. My daughter and son, who exhibited a high degree of patience. My students, who made me learn the subject. The Almighty, who has created such a beautiful world.