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BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FOURTH EDITION C. L. Wadhwa Formerly Professor Department of Electrical Engineering Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi Formerly Dean Faculty of Technology University of Delhi, Delhi PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS New Delhi • Bangalore • Chennai • Cochin • Guwahati • Hydcrnbad Jalandhar • Kolkata • Lucknow • Mumbai • Ranchi Visi[ us ac www.newagepublishers.com
Copyright© 2007, 2006, 2004 New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part ofthis ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means , or incorporated into any information retrieval syslem, eleclronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2947-3 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24,Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com
To My mother, who taught me how to hold pen in my little fingers. My father, who taught me modesty and tolerance. My wife, a symbol of mutual trust and mutual respect. My daughter and son, who exhibited a high degree of patience. My students, who made me learn the subject. The Almighty, who has created such a beautiful world.