Computer:- Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as an input from the user and processes it under the control of a set of instructions (called program), produces a result (output), and saves it for future use. Functionalities of a Computer If we look at it in a very broad sense, any digital computer carries out the following five functions − Step 1 − Takes data as input. Step 2 − Stores the data/instructions in its memory and uses them as required. Step 3 − Processes the data and converts it into useful information. Step 4 − Generates the output. Step 5 − Controls all the above four steps. Characteristics of Computers High Speed Computer is a very fast device. It is capable of performing calculation of very large amount of data. The computer has units of speed in microsecond, nanosecond, and even the picosecond. It can perform millions of calculations in a few seconds as compared to man who will spend many months to perform the same task. Accuracy In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. The calculations are 100% error free. Computers perform all jobs with 100% accuracy provided that the input is correct. Storage Capability Memory is a very important characteristic of computers. A computer has much more storage capacity than human beings.
It can store large amount of data. It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio, etc. Diligence Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can work continuously without any error and boredom. It can perform repeated tasks with the same speed and accuracy. Versatility A computer is a very versatile machine. A computer is very flexible in performing the jobs to be done. This machine can be used to solve the problems related to various fields. At one instance, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and the very next moment it may be playing a card game. Reliability A computer is a reliable machine. Modern electronic components have long lives. Computers are designed to make maintenance easy. Automation Computer is an automatic machine. Automation is the ability to perform a given task automatically. Once the computer receives a program i.e., the program is stored in the computer memory, then the program and instruction can control the program execution without human interaction. Reduction in Paper Work and Cost The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and results in speeding up the process. As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the problem of maintenance of large number of paper files gets reduced. Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high, it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.
Application of Computers Business A computer has high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility which has made it an integrated part in all business organizations. Computer is used in business organizations for − Payroll calculations Budgeting Sales analysis Financial forecasting Managing employee database Maintenance of stocks, etc. Banking Today, banking is almost totally dependent on computers. Banks provide the following facilities − Online accounting facility, which includes checking current balance, making deposits and overdrafts, checking interest charges, shares, and trustee records. ATM machines which are completely automated are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks. Insurance Insurance companies are keeping all records up-to-date with the help of computers. Insurance companies, finance houses, and stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns. Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing − Procedure to continue with policies Starting date of the policies Next due installment of a policy Maturity date
Interests due Survival benefits Bonus Education The computer helps in providing a lot of facilities in the education system. The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education). CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning. Computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students. There are a number of methods in which educational institutions can use a computer to educate the students. It is used to prepare a database about performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis. Marketing In marketing, uses of the computer are following − Advertising − With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products. Home Shopping − Home shopping has been made possible through the use of computerized catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers. Healthcare Computers have become an important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. They are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, ultrasounds and CT scans, etc. are also done by computerized machines. Following are some major fields of health care in which computers are used. Diagnostic System − Computers are used to collect data and identify the cause of illness.