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Note for ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EP By shanmugam.s

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Shanmugam S
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PH8201 PHYSICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS OF PHYSICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING – PH8201 Regulation 2017 Anna University Semester -II OBJECTIVE: To introduce the principles of thermal, acoustics, optics and new materials for civil engineering applications. UNIT I THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS Heat transfer through fenestrations, thermal insulation and its benefits. Heat gain and heat loss estimation – factors affecting the thermal performance of buildings. Thermal measurements, thermal comfort, indices of thermal comfort, climate and design of solar radiation, shading devices Central heating. Principles of natural ventilation – ventilation measurements, design for natural ventilation. Window types and packaged air conditioners – chilled water plant – fan coil systems – water piping – cooling load. Air conditioning systems for different types of buildings – Protection against fire to be caused by A.C.Systems. UNIT II ACOUSTICS Classification of sound- decibel- Weber–Fechner law – Sabine’s formula- derivation using growth and decay method. Absorption Coefficient and its determination –factors affecting acoustics of buildings and their remedies. Methods of sound absorptions – absorbing materials – noise and its measurements, sound insulation and its measurements, impact of noise in multi-storeyed buildings. UNIT III LIGHTING DESIGNS Radiation quantitites – spectral quantities – relationship between luminescence and radiant quantities – hemispherical reflectance and transmittance – photometry: cosines law, inverse square law. Vision – photobic, mesophic, scotopic visions. Colour – luminous efficiency function – Visual field glare, colour – day light calculations – day light design of windows, measurement of day-light and use of models and artificial skies, principles of artificial lighting, supplementary artificial lighting. UNIT IV NEW ENGINEERING MATERIALS Composites – definition and classification – Fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) and fiber reinforced metals (FRM). Metallic glasses – Shape memory alloys – Ceramics – Classification – Crystalline – Non Crystalline. Bonded ceramics, manufacturing methods – Slip casting – Isostatic pressing – Gas pressure bonding. Properties – thermal, mechanical, 2

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PH8201 PHYSICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING electrical and chemical ceramic fibres – ferroelectric and ferromagnetic ceramics – High Aluminium ceramics. UNIT V HAZARDS Seismology and Seismic waves – Earth quake ground motion – Basic concepts and estimation techniques – site effects. Probabilistic and deterministic Seismic hazard analysis. Cyclone and flood hazards – Fire hazards and fire protection, fire-proofing of materials, fire safety regulations and firefighting equipment. Prevention and safety measures. TEXT BOOKS: 1.Alexander,D.“Natural disaster”, Springer (1993). 2. Budinski, K.G. & Budinski, M.K. “Engineering Materials Properties and Selection”, Prentice Hall, 2009. 3. Severns, W.H. & Fellows, J.R. “Air conditioning and refrigeration”, John Wiley and Sons, London, 1988. 4. Stevens, W.R., “Building Physics: Lighting: Seeing in the Artificial Environment, Pergaman Press, 2013. REFERENCES: 1. Gaur R.K. and Gupta S.L., Engineering Physics. Dhanpat Rai publishers, 2012. 2. Reiter, L. “Earthquake hazard analysis – Issues and insights”, Columbia University Press, 1991. 3. Shearer, P.M. “Introduction to Seismology”, Cambridge University Press, 1999. 3

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PH8201 UNIT I PHYSICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS THE BENEFITS OF THERMAL INSULATION Lately, everybody in the construction field is becoming conscious of the multiple benefits thermal insulation has to offer in every construction. Thermal insulation contributes drastically to the lower consumption of heating fuel and thus to the preservation of our environment, while protecting other building elements from the weather. Here follows a list of the most important benefits of the thermal insulation:  reducing the heating cost The heating of a house aims at creating the thermal condition that we can describe as "comfortable living conditions" contemplating for any thermal losses to the environment. When a space (a building shell), is thermally insulated that means that these losses are less and therefore the need for the heating to be on is smaller and thus the consumption of the fuel is smaller too. Calculations made have shown that 45-60% of the energy needed to heat a building can be saved by the application of proper thermal insulation  creating the condition of thermal comfort The feeling of the thermal comfort depends on the air temperature in the space and on the temperature of the surrounding surfaces. In not insulated rooms it is common to feel cold although the air temperature is high. The reason for this lies on the drafts created when air becomes cold passing through cold surfaces. When insulating a building, its surfaces (walls etc) have only a small temperature difference with the air, thus giving no rise to draft effects. So the heating needed to achieve comfortable conditions in an insulated building, is only a fraction of that needed in a not insulated one.  avoiding condensation to take place on building elements In buildings with no thermal insulation usually condensation appears on the walls. This phenomenon becomes apparent when vapor touching cold wall surfaces is condensed. A consequence of this is the grey spots visible on the walls which are signs of mold with dust particles attached on it due to the surface being dump. With the external thermal insulation of the walls this phenomenon is altogether avoided since the temperature in the building doesn't fall below the critical condensation point.  reduced possibility for moisture present inside the building elements In dump spaces one can observe humidity dispersed in the environment through the building elements. When a wall is not insulated and thus cold, vapor may liquidate in its interior 4

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PH8201 PHYSICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING causing severe damage to its overall strength. External thermal insulation is the appropriate preventive measure against this phenomenon.  protection of the elements of the building envelope from the intense thermal stress Thermal insulation protects the external building elements from thermal stress reducing thus the possibility of cracks appearing on their coatings.  reduced cost for heating or air-conditioning The design of the heating system of a building aims at overcoming the losses to the environment, maintaining a steady temperature which is desirable by the inhabitants. Thermal insulation enables the use of a smaller, more efficient and cheaper heating system since the thermal losses are sizably smaller too.  sound insulation achieved when using fibrous insulation material In buildings with sound insulation problems one can use fibrous insulation materials (like glasswool or stonewool) which apart from being thermal insulating, add to the improvement of the sound insulation of the building elements.  environmental protection Applying thermal insulation on a building leads to considerable savings in energy consumption and accordingly fuel consumption. The fact that less fuel is needed leads to less pollution for the environment. It has been calculated that the emitted CO2 gases for the heating of an insulated building are as much as 45% less than the ones emitted from a not insulated building. ADVANTAGES OF THERMAL INSULATION 1. Due to thermal insulation, the room remains cooler in summer and warmer in winter than outside. Hence, a room provided with thermal insulation gives comfort both in summer and winter. 2. Energy Saving: Due to thermal insulation transfer of heat between inside and outside of the room is restricted. This result in less quantity of energy required for maintaining the desired temperature in the room. 3. Prevention of thermal stress on roofs. Due to thermal stresses, roof decks tend to crack. These would be reduced to a great extent. 4. Generally over-the-deck insulation materials are much lighter than the currently used brickbat coba or concrete, resulting in reduced deadweight on the roof slab. 5. Non-Toxic, Environmental friendly solutions. 6. Energy saving resulting in reduced costs of 1. Running cost of Air-conditioning. 2. Capital equipment cost reduction. 5

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