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Lab Manuals for Foundation Engineering - FE By Sadeeshkumar S

  • Foundation Engineering - FE
  • Practical
  • Paavai Engineering College PEC - PEC
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Sadeeshkumar S
Sadeeshkumar S
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Preface Geotechnical Engineering is the specialty of Civil Engineering which deals with the property and behavior of soil and rock in engineering purposes. For getting different properties of soil, different soil tests are performed. Some tests are performed at field which are called field test. Sometimes soil from field is collected and is tested at laboratory with equipment that is called laboratory test. This Lab manual mainly deals with the common and universal laboratory tests of different types of soil. Field identification tests of soil and laboratory tests like- grain size analysis by sieve and hydrometer; specific gravity test; moisture content determination test; organic content determination test; Atterberg limits test; permeability tests; unconfined compression test; compaction test; relative density test; direct shear tests; consolidation test are described according to ASTM (American Standards for Testing Materials). This Lab manual was prepared with the help of “Soil Testing for Engineers” by T Willium Lambe; some lecture notes from BUET (Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology), Lecture notes on “Engineering Properties of Soil based on Laboratory Testing” by Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC and some others. A S M Fahad Hossain Department of Civil Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology

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INDEX Test no. Test Name Page no. 1 Field Identification Test 1 2 Specific Gravity Test 8 3 Grain Size Analysis Test (Sieve Analysis) 12 4 Particle Size Analysis Test by Hydrometer 17 5 Moisture Content Determination Test 23 6 Organic Content Determination Test 26 7 Atterberg Limit Test 29 8 Constant Head Permeability Test 36 9 Relative Density Test 41 10 Compaction Test 45 11 Direct Shear Test 53 12 Unconfined Compressive Strength Test 63 13 Consolidation Test 70 Appendix-1: Commonly used engineering properties of soil 84 Appendix-2: Different consistencies of soils 85 Appendix-3: Lab report format 86 Appendix-3: Lab instructions 91

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Experiment 1 Field Identification Test Page | 1

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Standard practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual procedure) Scope of the test  The practice covers the procedures for the description of soils for engineering use.  The identification is based on Visual- examination and manual test. It must be clearly stated in reporting identification that it is based on visual-manual procedure. Standard Reference ASTM D 2488 - Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual - Manual Procedure) Identification of Peat A sample composed primarily of vegetable tissue in various stages of decomposition that has a fibrous to amorphous texture, usually a dark brown to black color, and organic odor shall be designated as a highly organic soil and shall be identified as peat, PT. Preliminary identification Soils can be classified into two general categories: (1) coarse grained soils and (2) fine grained soils. Examples of coarse-grained soils are gravels and sands. Examples of fine-grained soils are silts and clays. Procedures for visually identifying these two general types of soils are described in the following sections.  The soil is fine grained if it contains 50% or more fines.  The soil is coarse grained if it contains less than 50% fines. a. Identify the color (e.g. brown, gray, brownish gray), odor (if any) and texture (coarse or finegrained) of soil. b. Identify the major soil constituent (>50% by weight) using Table 1 as coarse gravel, fine gravel, coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, or fines. c. Estimate percentages of all other soil constituents using Table 1.1 and the following terms: Trace - 0 to 5% by weight Few – 5 to 10 % Little - 15 to 25% Some - 30 to 45% Mostly - 50 to 100% (Examples: trace fine gravel, little silt, some clay) Table 1.1 Grain size distributions Page | 2

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