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Note for Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1 by madhusudhan reddy A

  • Transportation Engineering 1 - TE1
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  • Civil Engineering
  • B.Tech
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10CV56 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I PART - B UNIT – 5 PAVEMENT MATERIALS: Subgrade soil – desirable properties-HRB soil classification-determination of CBR and modulus of subgrade reaction-Examples on CBR and Modulus of subgrade reaction, Aggregates- Desirable properties and list of tests, bituminous materials-Explanation on Tar, bitumen, cutback and emulsion-List of tests on bituminous materials 06 Hrs. UNIT – 6 PAVEMENT DESIGN: Pavement types, component parts of flexible and rigid pavements and their functions, design factors, ESWL and its determination-Examples, Flexible pavement- Design of flexible pavements as per IRC;37-2001-Examples, Rigid pavement- Westergaard’s equations for load and temperature stresses- Examples- Design of slab thickness only as per IRC:58-2002 06 Hrs. UNIT – 7 PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION: Earthwork –cutting-Filling, Preparation of subgrade, Specification and construction of i)Granular Subcase, ii) WBM Base, iii) WMM base, iv)Bituminous Macadam, v) Dense Bituminous Macadam vi) Bituminous Concrete, vii) Dry Lean Concrete sub base and PQC viii) concrete roads 05Hrs HIGHWAY DRAINAGE: Significance and requirements, Surface drainage system and design-Examples, sub surface drainage system, design of filter materials 03 Hrs. UNIT – 8 HIGHWAY ECONOMICS: Highway user benefits, VOC using charts only-Examples, Economic analysis - annual cost method-Benefit Cost Ratio method-NPV-IRR methods- Examples, Highway financing-BOTBOOT concepts 06 Hrs.

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING, I CHAPTER 1 10CV56 HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING Highway development in India Necessity for highway planning Different road development plans Classification of roads Road network patterns Highway Alignment Factors affecting alignment Engineering surveys Drawing and reports Highway project. Page 3

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I 10CV56 CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Overview Road transport is one of the most common modes of transport. Roads in the form of track ways, human pathways etc. were used even from the pre-historic times. Since then many experiments were going on to make the riding safe and comfort. Thus road construction became an inseparable part of many civilizations and empires. In this chapter we will see the different generations of road and their characteristic features. Also we will discuss about the highway planning in India. History of highway engineering The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient times. Roads in Rome were constructed in a large scale and it radiated in many directions helping them in military operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in road construction. In this section we will see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc. Ancient Roads The rst mode of transport was by foot. These human pathways would have been developed for speci c purposes leading to camp sites, food, streams for drinking water etc. The next major mode of transport was the use of animals for transporting both men and materials. Since these loaded animals required more horizontal and vertical clearances than the walking man, track ways emerged. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization led to the development of animal drawn vehicles. Then it became necessary that the road surface should be capable of carrying greater loads. Thus roads with harder surfaces emerged. To provide adequate strength to carry the wheels, the new ways tended to follow the sunny drier side of a path. These have led to the development of foot-paths. After the invention of wheel, animal drawn vehicles were developed and the need for hard surface road emerged. Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated as old as 3500 BC. Page 4

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10CV56 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I Roman roads The earliest large scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an extensive system of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. They were a remarkable achievement and provided travel times across Broken stones 8cm thick Large foundation stones on edge17cm thick Figure 2:2: French roads Europe, Asia minor, and north Africa. Romans recognized that the fundamentals of good road construction were to provide good drainage, good material and good workmanship. Their roads were very durable, and some are still existing. Roman roads were always constructed on a 1m - formed sub grade strengthened where necessary with wooden piles. The roads were bordered on both sides by longitudinal drains. The next step was the construction of the agger. This was a raised formation up to a 1 meter high and 15 m wide and was constructed with materials excavated during the side drain construction. This was then topped with a sand leveling course. The agger contributed greatly to moisture control in the pavement. The pavement structure on the top of the agger varied greatly. In the case of Page 5

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