Geospatial analysis is an approach to applying statistical methods and other informational techniques to data which has a geographical or geospatial aspect. Such analysis would typically employ software capable of geospatial representation and processing, and apply analytical methods to terrestrial or geographic datasets, including the use of GIS.
Geospatial analysis, using GIS, was developed for problems in the environmental and life sciences, in particular ecology and geology and It has extended to almost all industries including defence, intelligence, utilities, Natural Resources (i.e. Oil and Gas, Forestry etc.), social sciences, medicine and Public Safety (i.e. emergency management and criminology). Spatial statistics typically result primarily from observation rather than experimentation.
Surface analysis —in particular analysing the properties of physical surfaces, such as gradient, aspect and visibility, and analysing surface-like data “fields”. Network analysis — examining the properties of natural and man-made networks in order to understand the behaviour of flows within and around such networks; and locational analysis. Geovisualization — the creation and manipulation of images, maps, diagrams, charts, 3D views and their associated tabular datasets.