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Note for Metallurgy and Materials Science - MMS By Mohan Suram

  • Metallurgy and Materials Science - MMS
  • Note
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
  • Mechanical Engineering
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SURAM MOHAN KUMAR, (PhD) 3 Assistant Professor, Dept. of ME, AVNIET, Hyderabad, India All engineering disciplines need to know about materials. Even the most immaterial like software or system engineering depend on the development of new materials, which in turn alter the economics, like software-hardware trade-offs. Increasing applications of system engineering are in materials manufacturing (industrial engineering) and complex environmental systems. Classification of Materials Like many other things, materials are classified in groups, so that our brain can handle the complexity. One could classify them according to structure, or properties, or use. The one that we will use is according to the way the atoms are bound together: Metals: The valence electrons are detached from atoms, and spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions together. Metals are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light (shiny if polished). Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold. Semiconductors: The bonding is covalent (electrons are shared between atoms). Their electrical properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of contaminants. They are opaque to visible light but transparent to the infrared. Examples: Si, Ge, GaAs. Ceramics: Atoms behave mostly like either positive or negative ions, and are bound by Coulomb forces between them. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors with oxygen, nitrogen or carbon (oxides, nitrides, and carbides).Examples: glass, porcelain, many minerals. Polymers: are bound by covalent forces and also by weak van der Waals forces, and usually based on H, C and other non-metallic elements. They decompose at moderate temperatures (100 – 400 C), and are lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. Examples: plastics (nylon, teflon, polyester) and rubber. Other categories are not based on bonding. A particular microstructure identifies 3

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SURAM MOHAN KUMAR, (PhD) 4 Assistant Professor, Dept. of ME, AVNIET, Hyderabad, India Composites: Composites made of different materials in intimate contact (example: fiberglass, concrete, wood) to achieve specific properties. Biomaterials can be any type of material that is biocompatible and used, for instance, to replace human body parts. Advanced Materials Materials used in "High-Tec" applications, usually designed for maximum performance, and normally expensive. Examples are titanium alloys for supersonic airplanes, magnetic alloys for computer disks, special ceramics for the heat shield of the space shuttle, etc. Modern Material's Needs • Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures: requires high temperature withstanding material • Use of nuclear energy requires solving problem with residues, or advances in nuclear waste processing. • Hypersonic flight requires materials that are light, strong and resist high temperatures. • Optical communications require optical fibers that absorb light negligibly. • Civil construction – materials for unbreakable windows. • Structures: materials that are strong like metals and resist corrosion like plastics. The current model of the sub-atomic structure involves a dense nucleus surrounded by a probabilistic "cloud" of electrons The plum pudding model was a model of the atom that incorporated the recently discovered electron, and was proposed by J. J. Thomson in 1904. Thomson had discovered the electron in 1897. The plum pudding model was abandoned after discovery of the atomic nucleus. The plum pudding model of the atom is also known as the "Blueberry Muffin" model. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons (which Thomson still called "corpuscles", though G. J. Stoney had proposed that atoms of electricity be called electrons in 1894) surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges, like negatively charged "raisins" surrounded by positively charged "pudding". The electrons (as we know them today) were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly rotating rings of electrons (see below). Instead of a soup, the atom was also sometimes said to have had a "cloud" of positive charge. 4

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SURAM MOHAN KUMAR, (PhD) 5 Assistant Professor, Dept. of ME, AVNIET, Hyderabad, India With this model, Thomson abandoned his earlier "nebular atom" hypothesis in which the atom was composed of immaterial vortices. Now, at least part of the atom was to be composed of Thomson's particulate negative "corpuscles", although the rest of the positively charged part of the atom remained somewhat nebulous and ill-defined. Rutherford model Rutherford overturned Thomson's model in 1911 with his well-known gold foil experiment in which he demonstrated that the atom has a tiny, heavy nucleus. Rutherford designed an experiment to use the alpha particles emitted by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen world of atomic structure. Rutherford presented his own physical model for subatomic structure, as an interpretation for the unexpected experimental results. In it, the atom is made up of a central charge (this is the modern atomic nucleus, though Rutherford did not use the term "nucleus" in his paper) surrounded by a cloud of (presumably) orbiting electrons. In this May 1911 paper, Rutherford only commits himself to a small central region of very high positive or negative charge in the atom. For concreteness, consider the passage of a high speed α particle through an atom having a positive central charge N e, and surrounded by a compensating charge of N electrons. From purely energetic considerations of how far particles of known speed would be able to penetrate toward a central charge of 100 e, Rutherford was able to calculate that the radius of his gold central charge would need to be less (how much less could not be told) than 3.4 x 10 metres. This was in a gold atom known to be 10 −10 −14 meters or so in radius—a very surprising th finding, as it implied a strong central charge less than 1/3000 of the diameter of the atom. The Rutherford model served to concentrate a great deal of the atom's charge and mass to a very small core, but didn't attribute any structure to the remaining electrons and remaining atomic mass. It did mention the atomic model of Hantaro Nagaoka, in which the electrons are arranged in one or more rings, with the specific metaphorical structure of the stable rings of Saturn. The plum pudding model of J.J. Thomson also had rings of orbiting electrons. Jean Baptiste Perrin claimed in his Nobel Lecture that he was the first one to suggest the model in his paper dated 1901. 5

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SURAM MOHAN KUMAR, (PhD) 6 Assistant Professor, Dept. of ME, AVNIET, Hyderabad, India The Rutherford paper suggested that the central charge of an atom might be "proportional" to its atomic mass in hydrogen mass units u (roughly 1/2 of it, in Rutherford's model). For gold, this mass number is 197 (not then known to great accuracy) and was therefore modeled by Rutherford to be possibly 196 u. However, Rutherford did not attempt to make the direct connection of central charge to atomic number, since gold's "atomic number" (at that time merely its place number in the periodic table) was 79, and Rutherford had modeled the charge to be about + 100 units (he had actually suggested 98 units of positive charge, to make half of 196). Thus, Rutherford did not formally suggest the two numbers (periodic table place, 79, and nuclear charge, 98 or 100) might be exactly the same. 6

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