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# Note for Computer Organistaion and Operating System - COOS by Manish Sharma

• Computer Organistaion and Operating System - COOS
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Informatic Assi. (Microsoft Excel) Page |2 vkSj Symbols, ;k Alphabet Data dks Text Data ekuk tkrk gS ;g Cell esa Default Left Align iznf’kZr gksrk gSA fdlh vad dks Hkh Label / Text ds :i esa fn;k tk ldrk gS blds fy;s Text ls iwoZ ‘ (Apostrophe) dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (2) NumberDigit Data esa 0-9 rd ds vad gh iz;ksx fd;s tk ldrs gSA blesa Format Hkh Apply fd;s tk ldrs gSA ;g Cell esa Right Align iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSA (3) Boolean (Logical)- True/False Value dks Cell esa Center es iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSA (4) FormulaCell esa fdlh lq= bR;kfn dks Hkh fn;k tk ldrk gSA (1) Text /Label- Alphabet, Numbers FormulaExcel esa fdlh rkfdZd ;k xf.krh; lq= dks Formula dgkW tkrk gSA Formula esa fuEufyf[kr fo’ks"krk;s gksrh gSA a. Formula dk izkjEHk = ls gksrk gSA b. Formula ds vUrxZr Value, Cell Reference vkSj Operators dks gh fn;k tk ldrk gSSA tSls& =a1*10+5 Note- Formula esa Text ;k String eku dks “ ” (Double Quotes) esa fn;k tkrk gSA OperatorsOperators os fpUg gksrs gS tks fdlh eku ;k Cell Address ij fØ;k djrs gSA (A) Arithmetic Operator- xf.krh; fØ;k;s djds vkafdd ifj.kke iznku djrs gSA (B) Relational Operator- nks ekuks esa rqyuk dj iznku djrs gSA Operator > < >= <= <> = Meaning Greater Than Less than Greater than equal to Less than equal to Not Equal to Equal To Example =10>5 =5<3 =12>=12 =10<=9 =10<>10 =A1=B1 (C) Concatenate Operator (&)- bldk iz;ksx nks operand dks ,dlkFk iznf’kZr djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA Operator + - * / ^ Meaning Addition tksM Subtraction ckfd Multiply xq.kk Division Hkkx Exponent ?kkr Example =10+5 =10-2 =12*2 =12/2 =2^5 Example- =“Ram” & “Shyam” Formula esa Operations dk  True/False ifj.kke Øe& - RamShyam Evaluate items in parentheses- Evaluate ranges -Convert percentages (%)-Perform exponentiation (^)-Perform multiplication (*) and division (/), which are of equal precedence-Perform addition (+) and subtraction (-), which are of equal precedence-Evaluate text operators (&)-Perform comparisons (=, <>, <=, >=). Example- =10+(6-3)/2^2*4-1 =10+3/2^2*4-1 =10+3/4*4-1 =10+0.75*4-1 =10+3-1 =13-1 =12 Cell References Relative Reference - a1, C6  Absolute Reference - &A&1  Mixed Reference - A&1, &A1 The Unique Computer-8104408838

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Informatic Assi. (Microsoft Excel) Page |3 Function (Shift + F3)Excel esa igys ls cus Formula’s dks Function dgkW tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh Function dk izk:i fuEu izdkj ls gksrk gS& Formula’s dh rjg gh Function Hkh = ls izkjEHk gksrs gSA =Functionname ( argument ) Function ftu ekuks ij dk;Z djrs gS mUgs Argument dgkW tkrk gSA Argument ds :i esa Value, Cell Address, Range vkfn fn;s tkrs gSA dbZ Function Fixed dk;Z djrs gS muesa Argument iz;qDr ugh fd;s tkrs gSA Category of FunctionsMath’s Functions (1) =Abs(num)- bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh fn;s x;s eku vFkok Cell ds Absolute eku dks izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA nwljs 'kCnks esa eku dks fcuk fdlh +/- Sign ds iznku fd;k tkrk gSA =Abs(-10) 10 =Abs(9-23) 14 =Abs(A9) bldk iz;ksx fdlh Num esa fdlh vad dk Hkkx nsus ij izkIr gksus okys 'ks"kQy dks izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (2) =mod(num,div)- =Mod(21,4) 1 =Mod(B7,C7) bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh fn;s x;s n'keyo djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (3) =int(dec_num)- Number ds iw.kkZd(fcuk n'keyo)eku dks izkIr =int(23.5) 23 =int(22/7) 3 =int(C6) (4) =Sqrt(num)- bldk iz;ksx fdlh fn;s Number dk oxZewy izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA =Sqrt(49) 7 =Sqrt(A3) bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh fn;s x;s tkrk gSA Number dh (5) =power(num,pow)- =power(2,4) 16 bldk iz;ksx fdlh n'keyo fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (6)=round(dec_num, pos)- (7) =Odd(Num)- =round(14.5265, 2) 14.53 =round(14.52, 1) 14.5 =round(14.5265, 0) 15 =Odd(52) 53 vxys fo"ke Number dks (8) =Even(Num)- vxys le fdlh fn;s x;s =Fact(5) number dks power dks nh xbZ izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k Position rd Round off djus ds iznku fd;k tkrk gSA Number dks =Even(21) (9) =Fact (Num)- =2^4 nh xbZ iznku fd;k tkrk gSA 22 Number dk Factorial eku iznku fd;k tkrk gSA 120 ;g Function fdlh eku dks nh dh iw.kkZd eku iznku djrk gSA (10) =Ceiling(Number, Unit)- = Ceiling(5,7) - 7 =Ceiling(15,7) - 21 The Unique Computer-8104408838 Unit ds vuqlkj Roundoff djds mPp

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Informatic Assi. (Microsoft Excel) Page |4 ;g Function fdlh eku dks nh xbZ djds fuEu iw.kkZd eku iznku djrk gSA (11) =Floor(Number, Unit)=Floor(5,7) - 0 =floor(15,7) - 14 Unit ds vuqlkj Roundoff aggregate Functions bldk iz;ksx Value lewg ls Number Cells dks Count djus ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s Numbers Cells dks gh Count djrk gSA Text o Blank Cells dks Count ugh fd;k tkrk gSA (1) =count(num…)- =Count(1,5,5,7) 4 =count(a1:c6) blds vUrxZr (2) Counta(Range)- Range dh Numbers, Text Cells dks Count Return fd;k tkrk gSA =Count(1,5,5,7) 4 =count(a1:c6) bldk iz;ksx nh xbZ (3) =Sum(num…)- Cells/Values/Range dk ;ksx djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA =sum(1,5,5,7) 18 =sum(a1:c6) (4) =average(num…)- bldk iz;ksx fdlh nh xbZ Range dk vkSlr izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA =Average(1,5,5,7) 4.5 =Average(a1:c6) bldk iz;ksx nh xbZ fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (5) =Max(num…)- Value lewg dh lcls cMh Cell Value dks izkIr djus ds lewg dh lcls NksVh Cell Value dks izkIr djus ds =Max(1,5,5,7) 7 =Max(a1:c6) bldk iz;ksx nh xbZ fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (6) =Min(num…)- Value =Min(1,5,5,7) 1 =Min(a1:c6) bldh lgk;rk ls Range esa nh xbZ 'krZ dks iw.kZ djus okyh Cells dh bldh lgk;rk ls tksM iznku fd;k tkrk gSA Range esa nh xbZ 'krZ dks iw.kZ djus okyh Cells dk (7) =Countif(Range, “Criteria”)- x.kuk dh tkrh gSA =Countif(a1: c6, “<50”) (8) =Sumif(Range, “Criteria”)- =Sumif( A1: A5, “>50”) (9) =Averageif(Ranges, “Criteria”)- bldh lgk;rk ls Range esa nh xbZ 'krZ dks iw.kZ djus Cells dk Average iznku fd;k tkrk gSA =Averageif( A1: A5, “<>50”) Character/String Function(1) =Len(String)- bldk iz;ksx fdlh fn;s x;s =Len (“String Value”) Text ;k String dh Length iznku 12 (2) Concatenate( Text1, Text2…) – ;g nks ;k nks ls vf/kd Cells dh djrk gSA = Concatenate ( “ Ram” , “Shyam”) RamShyam The Unique Computer-8104408838 Value dks dh tkrh gSA ,d Cell esa tksM dj iznf’kZr