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www.Vidyarthiplus.com S K Mondal’s Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines Contents Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1: Properties of Fluids 2: Pressure and Its Measurements 3: Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 4: Buoyancy and Flotation 5: Fluid Kinematics 6: Fluid Dynamics 7: Dimensional & Model Analysis 8: Boundary Layer Theory 9: Laminar Flow 10: Turbulent Flow in Pipes 11: Flow Through Pipes 12: Flow Through Orifices and Mouthpieces 13: Flow Over Notches and Weirs 14: Flow Around Submerged Bodies-Drag and Lift 15: Compressible Flow 16: Flow Through Open Channel 17: Force Exerted on Surfaces 18: Hydraulic Turbine 19: Centrifugal Pump 20: Reciprocating Pumps 21: Miscellaneous Hydraulic Machines Er. S K Mondal IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET-2003 batch, 12 years teaching experienced, Author of Hydro Power Familiarization (NTPC Ltd) Page 1 of 307 www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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www.Vidyarthiplus.com Note If you think there should be a change in option, don’t change it by yourself send me a mail at swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in I will send you complete explanation. Copyright © 2007 S K Mondal Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in the material presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious or otherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the following e-mail address: swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in S K Mondal Page 2 of 307 www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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www.Vidyarthiplus.com S K Mondal’s 1. Properties of Fluids Chapter 1 Pr oper ties of Fluids Contents of this chapter 1. Definition of Fluid 2. Characteristics of Fluid 3. Ideal and Real Fluids 4. Viscosity 5. Units of Viscosity 6. Kinematic Viscosity 7. Units of Kinematic Viscosity 8. Classification of Fluids 9. Effect of Temperature on Viscosity 10. Effect of Pressure on Viscosity 11. Surface Tension 12. Pressure Inside a Curved Surface 13. Capillarity 14. Derive the Expression for Capillary Rise Page 3 of 307 www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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www.Vidyarthiplus.com S K Mondal’s Properties of Fluids Chapter 1 Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU) Definition of Fluid A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external shearing forces. Characteristics of Fluid 1. It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. 2. Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied. 3. It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i.e. it flows under similar circumstances. Concept of Continuum The concept of continuum is a kind of idealization of the continuous description of matter where the properties of the matter are considered as continuous functions of space variables. Although any matter is composed of several molecules, the concept of continuum assumes a continuous distribution of mass within the matter or system with no empty space, instead of the actual conglomeration of separate molecules. Describing a fluid flow quantitatively makes it necessary to assume that flow variables (pressure, velocity etc.) and fluid properties vary continuously from one point to another. Mathematical descriptions of flow on this basis have proved to be reliable and treatment of fluid medium as a continuum has firmly become established. For example density at a point is normally defined as Here Δ is the volume of the fluid element and m is the mass If Δ is very large ρ is affected by the inhomogeneities in the fluid medium. Considering another extreme if Δ is very small, random movement of atoms (or molecules) would change their number at different times. In the continuum approximation point density is defined at the smallest magnitude of Δ , before statistical fluctuations become significant. This is called continuum limit and is denoted by Δ c. One of the factors considered important in determining the validity of continuum model is molecular density. It is the distance between the molecules which is Page 4 of 307 www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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