Overview Instruction Set Processor (ISP) Central Processing Unit (CPU) A typical computing task consists of a series of steps specified by a sequence of machine instructions that constitute a program. An instruction is executed by carrying out a sequence of more rudimentary operations.
Some Fundamental Concepts
Fundamental Concepts Processor fetches one instruction at a time and perform the operation specified. Instructions are fetched from successive memory locations until a branch or a jump instruction is encountered. Processor keeps track of the address of the memory location containing the next instruction to be fetched using Program Counter (PC). Instruction Register (IR)
Executing an Instruction Fetch the contents of the memory location pointed to by the PC. The contents of this location are loaded into the IR (fetch phase). IR ← [[PC]] Assuming that the memory is byte addressable, increment the contents of the PC by 4 (fetch phase). PC ← [PC] + 4 Carry out the actions specified by the instruction in the IR (execution phase).