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Note for Computer Organisation and Architecture - COA By satish kumar

  • Computer Organisation and Architecture - COA
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For Solved Question Papers of UGC-NET/GATE/SET/PGCET in Computer Science, visit http://victory4sure.weebly.com/ Deepa K S

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TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1: BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS 1-14 UNIT 2: MACHINE INSTRUCTIONS & PROGRAMS(CONT.) 15-30 UNIT 3: INPUT/OUTPUT ORGANIZATION 31-42 UNIT 6: ARITHMETIC 43-56 UNIT 7: BASIC PROCESSING UNIT 57-73 Deepa K S

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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION UNIT 1: BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS TYPES OF COMPUTERS Desktop Computers • These are most commonly used computers in home, schools and offices. • This has → processing- & storage-units → video & audio output-units → keyboard & mouse input-units. Notebook Computers (Laptops) • This is a compact version of a personal-computer(PC) made as a portable-unit. Workstations • These have more computational-power than PC. • These are used for business data-processing. • These have large computational-power and larger storage-capacity than workstations. • These are referred to as → server at low-end and → super-computers at high end. Servers • These have large database storage-units and can also execute requests from other computers. • These are used in banks & educational institutions. • These are used for very complex numerical-calculations. • These are used in weather forecasting, aircraft design and military applications. Deepa K S

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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONAL UNITS • A computer consists of 5 functionally independent main parts: 1)input, 2)memory,3)arithmetic & logic, 4)output and 5)control units. Input Unit • The computer accepts the information in the form of program & data through an input-device. • Whenever a key is pressed, the corresponding letter/digit is automatically translated into its corresponding binary-code and transmitted over a cable to either the memory or the processor. Memory Unit • This unit is used to store programs & data. • There are 2 classes of storage: 1) Primary-storage is a fast-memory that operates at electronic-speed. Programs must be stored in the memory while they are being executed. 2) Secondary-storage is used when large amounts of data & many programs have to be stored. Eg: magnetic disks and optical disks(CD-ROMs). • The memory contains a large number of semiconductor storage cells(i.e. flip-flops), each capable of storing one bit of information. • The memory is organized so that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation. • Memory in which any location can be reached in a short and fixed amount of time after specifying its address is called RAM (Random Access Memory). ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit) • This unit is used for performing arithmetic & logical operations. • Any arithmetic operation is initiated by bringing the required operand into the processor (i.e. registers), where the operation is performed by the ALU. Output Unit • This unit is used to send processed-results to the outside world. • • • • This unit is used for controlling the activities of the other units (such as memory, I/O device). This unit sends control-signals (read/write) to other units and senses their states. Data transfers between processor and memory are also controlled by the control-unit through timing-signals. Timing-signals are signals that determine when a given action is to take place. Deepa K S

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