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Note for Switch Gear & Protective Devices - SGPD By SABITA CHAINE

  • Switch Gear & Protective Devices - SGPD
  • Note
  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology Rourkela Odisha - BPUT
  • Electrical Engineering
  • 7 Topics
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BPUT Syllabus, 7th Semester B.Tech (Electrical Engineering) Module- I [10 Hours] University Portion (80%) : (8 Hours) Introduction: Principle and need for protective schemes, Nature and causes of faults, Zones of protection, Primary and back-up protection, Basic principle of operation of protective system, Components of Protection System. [Text Book 1 : CH 1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3] Sequence Components and Fault Analysis: Sequence components (positive, negative and zero) and their significance, Average 3-phase power in terms of symmetrical components, sequence impedance, fault calculations, Single line to ground fault, Line to ground fault with Zf, Faults in Power systems, Concept of short circuit capacity of a Bus. [Ref. Book 1: CH 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.10, 13.13] College/Institute Portion (20%) : (2 Hours) Fault limiting Reactors and Fuses: Use of Reactors, Construction of Reactors, Types of Reactors, Methods of locating Reactors, Fuse element material, types of fuses, High voltage H.R,C. Fuses and its application, Selection of fuses, Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuse. [Ref. Book 2: CH 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7] Or related advanced topics as decided by the concerned faculty teaching the subject. Module- II [10 Hours] University Portion (80%) : (8 Hours) Operating Principles and Relay Construction: Relay design and construction, Relay classification, Types of Electromagnetic relays, Theory of Induction relay torque, General Equations of Comparators and Electromagnetic Relays, Over Current relays, Directional relays, Distance relays, Differential relays. Feeder Protection: Over current, Distance and Pilot Protection. Static Relays: (Comparators and different relays) Amplitude comparator, Phase Comparator, Coincidence type phase comparator, Basic elements of a static relay, Over Current Relays, Differential Protection, Static distance Protection. [Text Book 1: CH 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, CH 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4] College/Institute Portion (20%): (2 Hours) Power System Grounding: Ungrounded system, Grounded neutral system, Choice of the method of neutral grounding, Grounding Practice, Equipment Grounding (Earthing), Grounding at substations, Grounding of [Ref. Book 2: CH 7.2, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9] Or related advanced topics as decided by the concerned faculty teaching the subject. 2|Page SWITCH GEAR AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

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BPUT Syllabus, 7th Semester B.Tech (Electrical Engineering) Module- III [10 Hours] University Portion (80%) : (8 Hours) Apparatus Protection: Transformer Protection, Generator Protection, Motor Protection, Bus bar protection schemes. [Text Book 1: CH 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5] Numerical relays: Block Diagram of Numerical Relay, Signal Sampling & Processing, Numerical Over-current protection, Numerical Transformer differential Protection, Numerical distance Protection of Transmission Line. [Text Book 2: CH 11.2, 11.3, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9] College/Institute Portion (20%): (2 Hours) Protection of Transmission Lines: (Over current and Carrier-aided Protection) Over current Relay, Application of Definite Time OC Relay and IDMT Relay for protection of a distribution feeder, protection of a three phase feeder, Directional Over current Relay, Need for Carrier-aided Protection, Various options for a Carrier, Coupling and Trapping the carrier into the desired line section, Unit type Carrier-aided Directional comparison Relaying, Carrier-aided Distance schemes for Acceleration of Zone II, Phase comparison Relaying. [Text Book 2 : CH 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6] Or related advanced topics as decided by the concerned faculty teaching the subject. Module- I V [10 Hours] University Portion (80%) : (8 Hours) Switchgears: Auto reclosing, Theory of Circuit interruption, Circuit constants in relation to Circuit breaking, Re-striking voltage transient, characteristics of Re-striking Voltage, Interaction between breaker and circuit, Current chopping. Circuit Breakers: Types of circuit breakers (air blast, air break, oil, vacuum, SF6 , DC circuit breaker), advantages and testing of circuit breaker. [Text Book 1: CH 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, CH 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 14.2,14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 18.2, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8] College/Institute Portion (20%): (2 Hours) Protection against Over voltage due to lightning: Mechanism of Lightning, Lightning stroke, Over voltage due to lightning, Protection against lightning, Different types of Arrester, Arrester Ratings, Arrester locations and effect of cables, Surge Absorber. [Ref. Book 2: CH12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8] Or related advanced topics as decided by the concerned faculty teaching the subject. 3|Page SWITCH GEAR AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

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BPUT Syllabus, 7th Semester B.Tech (Electrical Engineering) Text Books: 1. Power System Protection and Switchgear – B.Ravindranath & M.Chander–New Age International Publishers (Second Edition). 2. Bhavesh Bhalja, R P Maheshwari, Nilesh G.Chothani, Oxford University Press. 3. Fundamentals of Power System Protection – Y.G.Paithankar and S.R.Bhide, PHI Publication. (Second Edition) Reference Books: 1. Electrical Power System - C.L.Wadhwa New Age International Publishers. (Sixth Edition). 2. Power System Engineering - M.L.Soni, P.V.Gupta, U.S.Bhatnagar, A.Chakrabarti, Dhanpat Rai & Co. (P) Ltd. 3. Protection and Switchgear - B.Bhalja, R.P.Maheshwari, N.G. Chothani, OXFORD University Press. 4. Power System Protection and Switchgear - Badri Ram, Vishwakarma, Tata McGraw hill. 5. Switchgear and Protection – Sunil S Rao , Khanna Publishers, New Delhi. 6. Power System relaying by Horwitz, Phadke, Research Press. 4|Page SWITCH GEAR AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

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BPUT Syllabus, 7th Semester B.Tech (Electrical Engineering) MODULE I Introduction Principle and need for protection scheme The purpose of an Electric Power System is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. The power system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economically The capital investment involved in power system for the generation, transmission and distribution is so great that the proper precautions must be taken to ensure that the equipment not only operates as nearly as possible to peak efficiency, but also must be protected from accidents The normal path of the electric current is from the power source through copper (or aluminium) conductors in generators, transformers and transmission lines to the load and it is confined to this path by insulation. The insulation, however, may break down, either by the effect of temperature and age or by a physical accident, so that the current then follows an abnormal path generally known as Short Circuit or Fault • Any abnormal operating state of a power system is known as FAULT. Faults in general consist of short circuits as well as open circuits. Open circuit faults are less frequent than short circuit faults, and often they are transformed in to short circuits by subsequent events. 5|Page SWITCH GEAR AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

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