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Note for Organizational Behaviour - OB by Laxmikanta Nayak

  • Organizational Behaviour - OB
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Organizational Behaviour Module I : The study of Organizational Behaviour : Definition and Meaning, Why Study OB Learning – Nature of Learning, How Learning occurs, Learning and OB. Foundations of Individual Behaviour : Personality – Meaning and Definition, Determinants of Personality, Personality Traits, Personality and OB. Perception – Meaning and Definition, Perceptual Process, Importance of Perception in OB. Motivation – Nature and Importance, Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory, Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, Alderfer’s ERG Theory, Evaluations. Module II : Organizational Behaviour Process : Communication – Importance, Types, Gateways and Barriers to Communication, Communication as a tool for improving Interpersonal Effectiveness, Groups in Organizations – Nature, Types, Why do people join groups, Group Cohesiveness and Group Decisionmaking Managerial Implications, Effective Team Building. Leadership-Leadership & Management, Theories of Leadership-Trait theory, Leader Behaviour theory, Contingency Theory, Leadership and Follower ship, How to be an effective Leader, Conflict-Nature of Conflict and Conflict Resolution. An Introduction to Transactional Analysis (TA). Module-III : Organization : Organizational Culture – Meaning and Definition, Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. Introduction to Human Resource Management-Selection, Orientation, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal, Incentives Organizational Change – Importance of Change, Planned Change and OB techniques. International Organisational Behaviour – Trends in International Business, Cultural Differences and Similarities, Individual and Interpersonal Behaviour in Global Perspective.

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Organizational Behavior MODULE -1 Definition and Meaning Organizational behavior (often abbreviated OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towardimproving an organization’s effectiveness. OB is the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organization’s performance. OB includes the core topics of motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, change processes, conflict, work design, and work stress. Why study OB? Today’s challenges bring opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. In this section, we review some of the most critical issues confronting managers for which OB offers solutions—or at least meaningful insights toward solutions. Responding to Economic Pressures When times are bad, though, managersare on the front lines with employees who must be fired, who are asked tomake do with less, and who worry about their futures. The difference between good and bad management can be the difference between profit and loss or,ultimately,between survival and failure. In good times, understanding how to reward, satisfy, and retain employees is at a premium.In bad times, issues like stress, decision making, and coping come to the fore. Responding to Globalization Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders all major automobile makers now manufacture cars outside their borders; Honda builds cars in Ohio, Ford in Brazil, Volkswagenin Mexico, and both Mercedes and BMW in South Africa. The world has become a global village. In the process, the manager’s job

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haschanged.all major automobile makers now manufacture cars outside their borders; Honda builds cars in Ohio, Ford in Brazil, Volkswagenin Mexico, and both Mercedes and BMW in South Africa. The world has become a global village. In the process, the manager’s job haschanged.All major automobile makers now manufacture cars outside their borders; Honda builds cars in Ohio, Ford in Brazil, Volkswagenin Mexico, and both Mercedes and BMW in South Africa The world has become a global village. In the process, the manager’s job has changed. Increased Foreign Assignments If you’re a manager and you are transferred to your employer’s subsidiary in another country, you have to manage a workforce having different needs, aspirations, and attitudes. Working with People from Different Cultures To work effectively with people from different cultures, you need to understand how their culture, geography, and religion have shaped them and how to adapt your management style to their differences. Overseeing Movement of Jobs to Countries with Low-Cost Labor In a global economy, jobs tend to flow where lower costs give businesses a comparative advantage. It’s not by chance that many in the United States wear clothes made in China, work on computers whose microchips came from Taiwan, and watch movies filmed in Canada. Managing Workforce Diversity One of the most important challenges for organizations is adapting to people who are different. We describe this challenge as workforce diversity. Whereas globalization focuses on differences among people from different countries, workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given countries. Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychologicalabilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. Improving Customer Service Management needs to create a customer-responsive culture. OB can provide considerable guidance in helping managers create such cultures—in which

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employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customer needs, and willing to do what’s necessary to please the customer. Improving People Skills You’ll gain insights into specific people skills that you can use on the job. You’ll learn ways to design motivating jobs, techniques for improving your listening skills, and how to create more effective teams. Stimulating Innovation and Change An organization’s employees can be the impetus for innovation and change, The challenge for managers is to stimulate their employees’ creativity and tolerance for change. The field of OB provides a wealth of ideas and techniques to aid in realizing these goals. Coping with “Temporariness Today most managers and employees today work in a climate best characterized as “temporary. permanent employees are replaced with temporary workers. Managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness, flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability. The study of OB can help you better understand a work world of continual change, overcome resistance to change, and create an organizational culture that thrives on change. Working in Networked Organizations Networked organizations use e-mail, the Internet, and video-conferencing allow employees to communicate and work together even though they are thousands of miles apart. The manager’s job in a networked organization requires different techniques from those used when workers are physically present in a single location. Helping Employees Balance Work–Life Conflicts Employees increasingly recognize that work infringes on their personal lives, and they’re not happy about it. Recent studies suggest employees want jobs that give them flexibility in their work schedules so they can better manage work–life conflicts. OB offers a number of suggestions to guide managers in designing workplaces and jobs that can help employees deal with work–life conflicts. Creating a Positive Work Environment organizations are trying to realize a competitive advantage by fostering a positive work environment which means practicing engagement, hope, optimism, and resilience in the face of strain. Improving Ethical Behavior

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