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Note for Computer Organization - CO by Thanmayee Tumuluri

  • Computer Organization - CO
  • Note
  • DVR & Dr. HS MIC College of Technology - MIC
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 12 Topics
  • 795 Views
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Thanmayee Tumuluri
Thanmayee Tumuluri
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UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS Workstation is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other such types of applications which require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, large amount of RAM, inbuilt network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. Common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like PC, workstations are also singleuser computers like PC but are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems. Minicomputer It is a midsize multi-processing system capable of supporting up to 250 users simultaneously. Mainframe Mainframe is very large in size and is an expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframe executes many programs concurrently and supports many simultaneous execution of programs. Supercomputer Supercomputers are one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amount of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). 2. EXPLAIN ABOUT FUNCTIONAL UNITS IN COMPUTER ORGANIZATION? All types of computers follow the same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users. S.No. Operation 2|Page Description COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

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UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS 1 Take Input The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system. 2 Store Data Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required. 3 Processing Data 4 Output Information The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display. 5 Control the workflow Directs the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed. Performing arithmetic, and logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. Input Unit This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into the computer. This unit creates a link between the user and the computer. The input devices translate the information into a form understandable by the computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) 3|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

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UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program). It controls the operation of all parts of the computer. CPU itself has the following three components −  ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)  Memory Unit  Control Unit Output Unit The output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from the computer. This unit is a link between the computer and the users. Output devices translate the computer's output into a form understandable by the users. Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features −  CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.  CPU performs all types of data processing operations.  It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).  It controls the operation of all parts of the computer. CPU itself has following three components.  Memory or Storage Unit  Control Unit  ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) Memory or Storage Unit 4|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

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UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS This unit can store instructions, data, and intermediate results. This unit supplies information to other units of the computer when needed. It is also known as internal storage unit or the main memory or the primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM). Its size affects speed, power, and capability. Primary memory and secondary memory are two types of memories in the computer. Functions of the memory unit are −  It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing.  It stores intermediate results of processing.  It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.  All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the main memory. Control Unit This unit controls the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry out any actual data processing operations. Functions of this unit are −  It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.  It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.  It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.  It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.  It does not process or store data. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) This unit consists of two subsections namely,  Arithmetic Section  Logic Section Arithmetic Section Function of arithmetic section is to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. All complex operations are done by making repetitive use of the above operations. Logic Section Function of logic section is to perform logic operations such as comparing, selecting, matching, and merging of data. 5|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

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