2 a. The nature of change b. The change management plan c. Dealing with resistance and conflict 7. Leadership & Ethics in Projects a. Project leadership b. Ethics in projects c. Multicultural projects 8. Introduction a. Project implementation b. Administrative closure c. Project evaluation References: 1. Information Technology Project Management: Kathy Schwalbe Thomson Publication. 2. Information Technology Project Management providing measurable organizational value Jack Marchewka Wiley India. 3. Applied software project management Stellman & Greene SPD. 4. Software Engineering Project Management by Richard Thayer, Edward Yourdon WILEY INDIA.
3 1 INTRODUCTION Unit Structure: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 What is a project? 1.1.1 Project Definition Project Attributes Project Constraints 1.3.1 Time 1.3.2 Cost 1.3.3 Scope What is Project Management 1.4.1 Features of projects 1.4.2 Project Classification 1.4.3 Project Management Tools and techniques 1.4.4 Project Success Factors The Role of Project Manager 1.5.1 Responsibilities of a Project Manager. Project Life Cycle 1.6.1 Project Initiation 1.6.2 Planning & Design 1.6.3 Execution & Controlling 1.6.4 Closure Project management has been practiced since early civilization. Until the beginning of twentieth century civil engineering projects were actually treated as projects and were generally managed by creative architects and engineers. Project management as a discipline was not accepted. It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex projects. As a discipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are commonly known: Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the five management functions which form the foundation of the body of
4 knowledge associated with project and program management. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline. 1.1 WHAT IS A PROJECT? All of us have been involved in projects, whether they be our personal projects or in business and industry. Examples of typical projects are for example: Personal projects: obtaining an MCA degree writing a report planning a party planting a garden Industrial projects: Construction of a building provide electricity to an industrial estate building a bridge designing a new airplane Projects can be of any size and duration. They can be simple, like planning a party, or complex like launching a space shuttle. 1.1.1 Project Definition: A project can be defined in many ways : A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” Operations, on the other hand, is work done in organizations to sustain the business. Projects are different from operations in that they end when their objectives have been reached or the project has been terminated. A project is temporary. A project’s duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date. You might not know that end date when the project begins, but it’s there somewhere in the future. Projects are not the same as ongoing operations, although the two have a great deal in common. A project is an endeavor. Resources, such as people and equipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by a team or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of
5 being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not happen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planning happens first. Finally, every project creates a unique product or service. This is the deliverable for the project and the reason, why that project was undertaken. 1.2 PROJECT ATTRIBUTES Projects come in all shapes and sizes. The following attributes help us to define a project further: - A project has a unique purpose. Every project should have a well-defined objective. For example, many people hire firms to design and build a new house, but each house, like each person, is unique. - A project is temporary. A project has a definite beginning and a definite end. For a home construction project, owners usually have a date in mind when they’d like to move into their new homes. - A project is developed using progressive elaboration or in an iterative fashion. Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer. For example, there are many decisions that must be made in planning and building a new house. It works best to draft preliminary plans for owners to approve before more detailed plans are developed. - A project requires resources, often from various areas. Resources include people, hardware, software, or other assets. Many different types of people, skill sets, and resources are needed to build a home. - A project should have a primary customer or sponsor. Most projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship. The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project. - A project involves uncertainty. Because every project is unique, it is sometimes difficult to define the project’s objectives clearly, estimate exactly how long it will take to complete, or determine how much it will cost. External factors also cause uncertainty, such as a supplier going out of business or a project team member needing unplanned time off. This uncertainty is one of the main reasons project management is so challenging.