3 1 INTRODUCTION Unit Structure: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 What is a project? 1.1.1 Project Definition Project Attributes Project Constraints 1.3.1 Time 1.3.2 Cost 1.3.3 Scope What is Project Management 1.4.1 Features of projects 1.4.2 Project Classification 1.4.3 Project Management Tools and techniques 1.4.4 Project Success Factors The Role of Project Manager 1.5.1 Responsibilities of a Project Manager. Project Life Cycle 1.6.1 Project Initiation 1.6.2 Planning & Design 1.6.3 Execution & Controlling 1.6.4 Closure Project management has been practiced since early civilization. Until the beginning of twentieth century civil engineering projects were actually treated as projects and were generally managed by creative architects and engineers. Project management as a discipline was not accepted. It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex projects. As a discipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are commonly known: Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the five management functions which form the foundation of the body of
4 knowledge associated with project and program management. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline. 1.1 WHAT IS A PROJECT? All of us have been involved in projects, whether they be our personal projects or in business and industry. Examples of typical projects are for example: Personal projects: obtaining an MCA degree writing a report planning a party planting a garden Industrial projects: Construction of a building provide electricity to an industrial estate building a bridge designing a new airplane Projects can be of any size and duration. They can be simple, like planning a party, or complex like launching a space shuttle. 1.1.1 Project Definition: A project can be defined in many ways : A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” Operations, on the other hand, is work done in organizations to sustain the business. Projects are different from operations in that they end when their objectives have been reached or the project has been terminated. A project is temporary. A project’s duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date. You might not know that end date when the project begins, but it’s there somewhere in the future. Projects are not the same as ongoing operations, although the two have a great deal in common. A project is an endeavor. Resources, such as people and equipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by a team or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of
5 being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not happen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planning happens first. Finally, every project creates a unique product or service. This is the deliverable for the project and the reason, why that project was undertaken. 1.2 PROJECT ATTRIBUTES Projects come in all shapes and sizes. The following attributes help us to define a project further: - A project has a unique purpose. Every project should have a well-defined objective. For example, many people hire firms to design and build a new house, but each house, like each person, is unique. - A project is temporary. A project has a definite beginning and a definite end. For a home construction project, owners usually have a date in mind when they’d like to move into their new homes. - A project is developed using progressive elaboration or in an iterative fashion. Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer. For example, there are many decisions that must be made in planning and building a new house. It works best to draft preliminary plans for owners to approve before more detailed plans are developed. - A project requires resources, often from various areas. Resources include people, hardware, software, or other assets. Many different types of people, skill sets, and resources are needed to build a home. - A project should have a primary customer or sponsor. Most projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship. The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project. - A project involves uncertainty. Because every project is unique, it is sometimes difficult to define the project’s objectives clearly, estimate exactly how long it will take to complete, or determine how much it will cost. External factors also cause uncertainty, such as a supplier going out of business or a project team member needing unplanned time off. This uncertainty is one of the main reasons project management is so challenging.
6 1.3 PROJECT CONSTRAINTS Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as scope, time, and cost. These are also referred to as the Project Management Triangle, where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without impacting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product 'quality' or 'performance' from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint. The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints. Another approach to project management is to consider the three constraints as finance, time and human resources. If you need to finish a job in a shorter time, you can allocate more people at the problem, which in turn will raise the cost of the project, unless by doing this task quicker we will reduce costs elsewhere in the project by an equal amount. 1.3.1 Time: For analytical purposes, the time required to produce a product or service is estimated using several techniques. One method is to identify tasks needed to produce the deliverables documented in a work breakdown structure or WBS. The work effort for each task is estimated and those estimates are rolled up into the final deliverable estimate. The tasks are also prioritized, dependencies between tasks are identified, and this information is documented in a project schedule. The dependencies between the tasks can affect the length of the overall project (dependency constraint), as can the availability of resources (resource constraint). Time is not considered a cost nor a resource since the project manager cannot