The modern roads by and large follow Macadam's construction method. Use of
bituminous concrete and cement concrete are the most important developments. Various
advanced and cost-effective construction technologies are used. Development of new
equipments helps in the faster construction of roads. Many easily and locally available
materials are tested in the laboratories and then implemented on roads for making economical
and durable pavements.
Scope of transportation system has developed very largely. Population of the country
is increasing day by day. The life style of people began to change. The need for travel to
various places at faster speeds also increased. This increasing demand led to the emergence
of other modes of transportation like railways and travel by air. While the above development
in public transport sector was taking place,the development in private transport was at a much
faster rate mainly because of its advantages like accessibility, privacy, flexibility,
convenience and comfort.
This led to the increase in vehicular traffic especially in private
transport network. Thus road space available was becoming insufficient to meet the growing
demand of traffic and congestion started. In addition, chances for accidents also increased.
This has led to the increased attention towards control of vehicles so that the transport
infrastructure was optimally used. Various control measures like traffic signals, providing
roundabouts and medians, limiting the speed of vehicle at specific zones etc. were
With the advancement of better roads and efficient control, more and more
investments were made in the road sector especially after the World wars. These were large
projects requiring large investment. For optimal utilization of funds, one should know the
travel pattern and travel behavior. This has led to the emergence of transportation planning
and demand management.
The First World War period and that immediately following it found a rapid growth in
motor transport. So need for better roads became a necessity. For that, the Government of
India appointed a committee called Road development Committee with Mr.M.R. Jayakar as
the chairman. This committee came to be known as Jayakar committee.