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Note for Database Management System - DBMS By Umesh Kumar

  • Database Management System - DBMS
  • Note
  • Guru ghasidas central university bilaspur - Ggu
  • Master of Computer Applications
  • 13 Topics
  • 61 Offline Downloads
  • Uploaded 1 year ago
Umesh Kumar
Umesh Kumar
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Relational Data Base Management System 1. Overview of Database Management : Data, Information and knowledge, Increasing use of data as a corporate resource, data processing verses data management, file oriented approach verses database oriented approach to data management; data independence, database administration roles, DBMS architecture, different kinds of DBMS users, importance of data dictionary, contents of data dictionary, types of database languages. Data models: network, hierarchical, relational. Introduction to distributed databases. 2. Relational Model : Entity - Relationship model as a tool for conceptual design-entities attributes and relationships. ER diagrams; Concept of keys: candidate key, primary key, alternate key, foreign key; Strong and weak entities, Case studies of ER modelling Generalization; specialization and aggregation. Converting an ER model into relational Schema. Extended ER features. 3. Structured Query Language : Relational Algebra: select, project, cross product different types of joins (inner join, outer joins, self join); set operations, Tuple relational calculus, Domain relational calculus, Simple and complex queries using relational algebra, stand alone and embedded query languages, Introduction to SQL constructs (SELECT…FROM, WHERE… GROUP BY… HAVING… ORDERBY….), INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, VIEW definition and use, Temporary tables, Nested queries, and correlated nested queries, Integrity constraints: Not null, unique, check, primary key, foreign key, references, Triggers. Embedded SQL and Application Programming Interfaces. 4. Relational Database Design : Normalization concept in logical model; Pitfalls in database design, update anomalies: Functional dependencies, Join dependencies, Normal forms (1NF, 2NF, 3NF). Boyce Codd Normal form, Decomposition, Multi-Valued Dependencies, 4NF, 5NF. Issues in physical design; Concepts of indexes, File organization for relational tables, Denormalization. 5. Introduction to Query Processing and Protecting the Database & Data Organizations: Parsing, translation, optimization, evaluation and overview of Query Processing. Protecting the Data Base -Integrity, Security and Recovery. Domain Constraints, Referential Integrity, Assertion, Triggers, Security & Authorization in SQL. Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (GGU) PAGE | 2

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Unit-1 Overview of Database Management: Data The row facts are called as data  The word “row” indicates that they have not been processed Ex- for example 55 is data or ram is data. Information The processed data is knows as information Ex- marks 56 then it becomes information. Difference between Data and Information. Data Information 1. Raw facts Processed data 2. It is in unorganizated from It is in organizated order 3. Data doesn’t help decision making Information help in decision processes process making Codd’s Rules for relational DBMS   E.F codd was a computer scientist who invented the relational model for database management. Codd’s rules actually define what quality a DBMS requires in order to become a relational database management system(RDBMS) Rule zero-: Rules 1: Information rule Rules 2: Guaranteed Access Rules 3: Systematic Treatment of NULL Rules 4: Active Online Catalog Rules 5: powerful and well-Structured Language Rules 6: View updating rule Rules 7: Relational Level Operation Rules 8: physical Data Independence Rules 9: Logical Data Independence Rules 10: Integrity Independence Rules 11: Distribution Independence Rules 12: Non-subversion Rule Database-:  It is a collection of interrelated data of an enterprise in a particular subject. Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (GGU) PAGE | 3

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 It is a collection of data in an organized manner in a persistence media so that storing and retrieving data will be easier.  Size of the database is not fixed & it can vary.  This can be stored in the form of tables.  A database can be generated and maintained manually or by computer.  Database is set of files containing application data.  A database may be generated and manipulated manually or it may be computerized.  This data needs to be inserted, deleted, updated, and extracted for any valid reason.  Example -: Dictionary, Telephone Directory, Library Card Catalog. DBMS-:     It is collection of program (software), which is used to create manipulate (insert, retrieve, delete, update) data in database. It also facilitates the process of defining, constructing, manipulating and sharing database among various users and application. A DBMS is a 4th generation language. Example-: Oracle, SQL, server, MS-Access. Advantages of DBMS-: 1. Data independence.:- DBMS allow dynamic changes at one level of database without affecting other levels. 2. Efficient Data Access. 3. Data Integrity and Security 4. Data administration. 5. Concurrent access and crash recovery 6. Reduced application development time:7. Shard Data-: DBMS allows data sharing between no of users and programs. Disadvantage-:    Cost-: The cost of purchasing or developing the software , cost of upgrading the hardware to store the DBMS and allow it to run and the cost of migration from a separate application environment to an integrate one is very high. Complexity of backup and recovery-: backup & recovery operations are fairly complex in a DBMS environment. Problems with centralization:- As the data is accessible from a single source failure of the central system disrupts the entire system. But that can be avoided by using distributed database Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (GGU) PAGE | 4

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RDBMS-:RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System, RDBMS is the basic of SQL, and modern database like MS SQL server, IBM DB2,Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access. Differentiate between DBMS & RDBMS. S.No DBMS 1. DBMS stand for database management system. 2. DBMS is not an object based database management system. 3. In DBMS only one user can access the same database, at the same time. 4. In DBMS entity is more important. 5. 6. 7. 8. RDBMS RDBMS stand for relational database management system RDBMS is object based database management system. In RDBMS many users simultaneously access the same database . In RDBMS the relation is more important that object itself. small The RDBMS is for large organizations. The DBMS is for organizations. It is less secure than RDBMS. DBMS store and retrieve small amount of Data. Example of DBMS are FoxPro and MS-ACCESS. RDBMS is more secure than DBMS. RDBMS store and retrieve large amount of Data. Example of RDBMS are ORACLE,SQL 2000, and IBM DB2. Application of Database System-:  Banking-: for customer information ,accounts, loans, transaction etc.  Airlines-: for reservation and schedule information.  Universities-: for student information , examination information, department information etc.     Credit Card Transaction-: for purchase through credit card and generation of monthly statement. Finance-: Storing information about sales & purchase of shares, stocks,bounds,etc. Human resource-: Storing information about employees, salaries , benefits, etc. Internet -: Storing user-id , password etc. in a mailing system. Database System versus file system / Disadvantage of file system. 1) Data Redundancy-:  same information may be duplicated in several files.  For example the information of a particular customer may appear in two different files one storing saving account records and another storing loan account records. Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (GGU) PAGE | 5

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