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Note of COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH (Phonetics) by Snigdha Tripathy

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Pure Vowels… DiPhthongs… i: ɪ ʊ u: ɪə eɪ sheep ship book shoot here wait e ə ɜ: ɔ: ʊə ɔɪ əʊ Left teacher her door tourist Coin show æ ʌ ɑ: ɒ eə aɪ aʊ Hat up far on hair Like mouth MODULE 2 SOUNDS OF ENGLISH….. Consonants Sounds… P b t d ʧ ʤ k g Pea boat tree dog cheese joke coin go F v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ Free video thing this see zoo sheep vision M n ŋ h l r w j Mouse now thing hope love run we you Learning Pronunciation of English | By- Snigdha Tripathy

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Phonetics… Chapter: 1 INTRODUCTION… Communication is an integral part of human life. We tend to communicate naturally and with or without much effort. We communicate in order to share our ideas, inform or instruct others, entertain people around us, or motivate or persuade someone. Whatever we communicate is often important and we want that the receiver should understand our message as well as our intention behind the message properly. In order to make our communication effective, we need to know more about the way we communicate. As most of the time we communicate orally with others, we need to have a basic understanding of the sound system of the language (English) that we use, so that our oral messages are communicated effectively. Mother Tongue Interference (MTI)… We learn our mother tongue (L1) from our birth. We are always surrounded by this language and we use it in our everyday life while talking with anyone. This mother tongue has a lot of influence on the way, we speak any other language. For Example: Tamilians, Bengalis, Odias, etc. speak Hindi in a different way from the speakers of Delhi. They identify and remember the sounds of Hindi in reference to their mother-tongue. They speak Hindi with Tamil, Bengali or Odia accent. Therefore, when we try to learn English as a second language (L2), we find it difficult to imitate the exact sounds of English. It is so, because the rules of English are quite different from the rules of our mothertongue. In English, we find different types of letters and sounds which are not exactly similar to the letters and sounds of our L1. This leads to incorrect pronunciation and makes it difficult for others to understand what is being spoken. So, learning correct pronunciation becomes highly essential. Correct pronunciation is the one which is understood by the receiver without distracting them. Important terms in this module Phonetics: It is the study of the sound system of a language. Pronunciation: It refers to the way a word or a language is usually spoken; or the manner in which someone utters a word. Correct Pronunciation: A truly acceptable pronunciation is the one that allows the listener to understand the content of the message without being distracted by its form. Phoneme: It is a basic sound in a given language. IPA Symbols: International Phonetic Alphabet Symbols. There are 44 IPA Symbols in English and each of these symbols represents a sound. These 44 IPA sounds are divided into consonant and vowel sounds. There are 24 consonant sounds and 20 vowel sounds. Module-2_Sounds of English Snigdha Tripathy

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Consonants Sounds: They are the sounds in English, during the production of which there is either a closure or a narrowing of the air passage in the mouth cavity. Vowel Sounds: In producing these sounds, there is no closure or narrowing made at any point in the mouth cavity. Stress: It is the degree of force with which we pronounce a word. Tone: It is the modulation of the voice that shows the attitude, approach, and intention of the speaker. Rhythm: It is a pattern of successive accented and unaccented syllables in an utterance or s sentence. Tone Group: It is a group of words that share the same tone. The part of a sentence uttered in one breath. Nucleus/ Tonic Syllable: It is the syllable on which the tone begins. It is generally the last stressed syllable. Pitch: It is related to the frequency of vibration of sound waves. High-frequency sounds have a higher pitch while low-frequency sounds have a lower pitch. Intonation: The rise and fall in pitch is known as Intonation. It indicates the speaker’s attitude towards the listener/ the topic. ********************************** Module-2_Sounds of English Snigdha Tripathy

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Consonant Sounds… Chapter: 2 When a consonant sound is produced, the air flow from the lungs is either stopped very briefly in the mouth cavity before being released (e.g. the sound /p/ as in ‘pin’), or is allowed through a narrowed passage, causing friction that can be heard (e.g. the sound /s/ as in ‘silk’). The following chart shows how the 24 consonant sounds are used in different words: Sl. no Phonemic Symbols Initial Middle Final 1 /b/ box abroad Tub 2 /d/ day adore Said 3 /f/ fine affirm Enough 4 /g/ gold again League 5 /h/ hut behave Ah 6 /j/ yes student - 7 /k/ call echo Block 8 /l/ lamp collect Bottle 9 /m/ money company Column 10 /n/ nest sound Brain 11 /p/ please speak Deep 12 /r/ rose scream Over 13 /s/ soft biscuit Device 14 /t/ time better Beat 15 /v/ vine averse Forgive 16 /w/ water question - 17 /z/ zoo busy Birds 18 / tʃ / chalk future Attach 19 / ʃ/ shape pressure Crush 20 /ʤ/ jug magic Judge 21 /ʒ / genre pleasure Garage 22 /ð/ then father - 23 /θ/ thin method Oath 24 /ŋ/ - hanging Sing Module-2_Sounds of English Snigdha Tripathy

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