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Note for Microprocessor - MP by mahaveer singh

  • Microprocessor - MP
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  • rtu - rtu
  • Electrical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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▪ Flash and Cache memory ▪ SDRAM,RDRAM ,DDRAM ➢ Memory latency ➢ memory bandwidth ➢ memory seek time CPU (Central Processing Unit) :• • • Central processing unit (CPU) is the central component of the Computer System. Sometimes it is called as microprocessor or processor. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor or Nerve Centre or heart, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. The CPU is the brains of the computer. CPU is consists of transistors that receives inputs and produces output of Transistors perform logical operations which is called processing.

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Parts of CPU :1.Arithmetic Logic Unit [ALU]:- • It is the part of computer processor (CPU) can be used to perform arithmetic and logic operations and decision, comparision {addition ,subtraction, multiplication, division, logical AND/OR/X-OR/NOT, increment,decrement,left and right shift,clear } • An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is further divided into two parts, (AU) arithmetic unit and a (LU) logic unit. • The data and instructions store in parimary storage before processing are transferred as and when needed to the ALU, where processing takes place. 2.Control Unit (CU) :• It control the all the entire operation of computer{memory, input or output devices} • • Decodes the program instruction. It maintains order and directs the operation of eniter system.

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• • It provide status, control and timing signal that the memory and I/O devices. CPU chip used in a computer is partially made out of Silica. on other words silicon chip used for data processing are called Micro Processor. 3.Registers: • It is temporary storage areas of the computer processor. • It is managed by control unit(CU). • Registers holding data,instruction and address that are needed by program while running The processor plays a significant role in the following important aspects of your computer system; ❖ Performance: The processor is probably the most important single determinant of system performance in the Pc. While other components also play key role in determining performance, the processor's capabilities dictate the maximum performance of a system. The other devices only allow the processor to reach its full potential. ❖ Software Support: Newer, faster processors enable the use of the latest software. In addition, new processors such as the Pentium with MMX Technology, enable the use of specialized software not usable on earlier machines. ❖ Reliability and Stability: The quality of the processor is one factor that determines how reliably your system will run. While most processors are very dependable, some are not. This also depends to some extent on the age of the processor and how much energy it consumes. ❖ Energy Consumption and Cooling: Originally processors consumed relatively little power compared to other system devices. Newer processors can consume a great deal of power. Power consumption has an impact on everything from cooling method selection to overall system reliability. ❖ Motherboard Support: The processor that decides to use in your system will be a major determining factor in what sort of chipset we must use, and hence what motherboard you buy. The motherboard in turn dictates many facets of. The system's capabilities and performance.

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MEMORY AND INPUT /OUTPUT INTERFACING :Computer memory is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. • A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in the computer, where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. • The memory is divided into large number of small parts called cells. Each location or cell has a unique address, which varies from zero to memory size minus one. • For example, if the computer has 64k words, then this memory unit has 64 * 1024 = 65536 memory locations. The address of these locations varies from 0 to 65535. Memory is primarily of three types − ➢ Cache Memory ➢ Primary Memory/Main Memory ➢ Secondary Memory 1.Cache Memory:• Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up the CPU. ▪ ▪ It acts as a buffer between the CPU and the main memory. It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by the CPU. ▪ The parts of data and programs are transferred from the disk to cache memory by the operating system, from where the CPU can access them. Advantages:• Cache memory is faster than main memory. • It consumes less access time as compared to main memory. • It stores the program that can be executed within a short period of time. • It stores data for temporary use.

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