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Note for Smart Grid - SG by Ayush Agrawal

  • Smart Grid - SG
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  • Electrical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Ayush Agrawal
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Smart Grid – The new paradigm Lecture Notes By Dr A K Tiwari Central Training Institute Jabalpur Smart Grid Notes Page 2

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Contents 1. Smart Grid – The new paradigm 4 2. IT Layer 12 3. Communication Layer 21 4. Advanced Metering Infrastructure 34 5. Interoperability and Standards for Smart Grid 37 6. Phasor Measurement Unit 45 7. Technologies for distributed generation 48 8. References 52 Smart Grid Notes Page 3

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1. Smart Grid – The new paradigm 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The economic activity of any country supported by industrial growth, citizen‘s life style, agriculture, trade and research is an impetus for sustained energy demand more in the form of electrical energy. Indian electrical energy generation was about 1600 MW in 1950s and 180000 MW in 2011. The augmentation is phenomenal but inadequate to meet the demand. This is typical situation in many countries. As per reports the current energy path is unsustainable and the world will need at least 50% more energy in 2030 than it uses today and since most of this energy is emanating from fossil fuels the carbon emissions are set to follow a similar track1. This brings to the fore the inter dependence of economic activity, energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for embracing low carbon energy through an innovative approach towards energy generation, distribution and utilization is found to be the key for the much needed transformation in the energy and power sector. This is the essence of the much talked about ―Smart Grid‖ perceived as panacea for the energy problem. The smart grid is a fall out of the growing concern on energy security, climate change and the urgency to embrace in a big way the renewable form of energy sources. 1.2 About Smart Grid The word smart grid has many definitions. Simply put, it is the integration of information and communication technology in to electric transmission and distribution networks. The smart grid is “an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances.” It may be looked upon as a reform process by which the balance is accomplished between available energy and demand by putting in place appropriate policies and operational framework. The Fig-1 depicts a smart grid scenario. Courtesy - IEEE Fig. 1 Smart Grid Scenario Smart Grid Notes Page 4

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The figure shows central power plant, distributed energy resources like wind turbines, fuel cells, storage besides loads centers. Under the smart grid scenario the attributes of each one of these components are asserted automatically to increase power availability or decrease power demand. The base layer of the smart grid is the robust distribution network with adequate energy resources. The intelligence is built over that by deployment of SCADA, AMI and Smart Meters and by leveraging the potential of ICT. The intelligence would reflect the business practices, policies and operational aspects of the Distribution Company. The policies also encompass pricing for distributed energy resources, smart pricing for consumers covering time of day metering, incentives for off peak times and other options. The vital component of smart grid is the ‗demand side management‘ program which would provide variety of options for the customers and induce them to reduce the demand on the network especially during peak hours. Simultaneously the concept of distributed resources would provide for proliferation of additional generation including renewable (virtual power plants) to be available as spinning resources at time of needs (peak period). Therefore through the ―Smart Grid‖, the distribution company can judiciously maneuver the ‗distributed generation‘ and ‗demand side management‘ in an optimal and efficient manner for providing power to all its customers without interruption. 1.3 Characteristics of Smart Grid: The smart grid concept offers several characteristics and a few are given in Table 1: Table - 1 Characteristics Description o Self-Healing Adaptive Interactive consumers and markets Optimized to make use of resources equipment Predictive rather reactive and with best and than Distributed Generation Smart Grid Notes Rapidly detects re-configures and restores power supply. Motivates and includes the consumer and stakeholders. Improved operational efficiency through optimal utilization of resources and assets. The system behaviour can be analysed and predicted to initiate advanced corrective action, as opposed to responding to emergencies. This virtue makes system resilient to physical/cyberattacks. Accommodates all forms of generation like solar, wind, bio-mass and storage Page 5

Lecture Notes