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Note for Non-Conventional Energy Systems - NCES by Akash Sharma

  • Non-Conventional Energy Systems - NCES
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  • Mechanical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) thousands of years. The word ‗coal‘ denotes a wide variety of solid fuels. The varieties in approximate order of their formation are peat, lignite, bituminous & anthracite coal. The rate of production of coal in India over the last 50 years is shown in fig (a). It can be seen that there has been an eleven-fold increase in production from 1951 to 2004 & that the average annual growth rate has been about 4.5%. In 2000, India‘s production was 300mt, which was about 6.7% of the world‘s production. India has fairly large reserves of coal. Fig.1. Annual production of coal in India [production rate (Mt/Year] v/s Year Year 1972 1981 1985 1992 2006 Table 1: Coal reserves in India (in Mt) Proved Indicated & inferred Total reserves reserves reserves Resources) 21360 59590 80950 27912 87490 115402 35030 120870 155900 64800 129000 193800 95866 157435 253301 ( Oil: The below fig.2. Represents presents data on the annual consumption of petroleum products in India (curve 3) from 1951 Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 2

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) onwards. It also shows the variation in the domestic production of crude oil (curve 1) & the import of crude (curve 2) over the years. Fig.2. Annual production, import & consumption of oil in India [Production Rate (Mt/Year) v/s Year] Curve 1.Domestic production of crude, Curve 2.Import of crude, Curve 3. Consumption of products Natural gas: presents data on the annual useful production of natural gas in India from 1969 onwards. In 1969, the production was only 0.516 billion m3. It did not change much till 1973. However, subsequently the production increased rapidly. It was 8.913 billion m3 in 1989, 13.5% from 1989 to 1997 & 3.1% from 1997 to 2005. Fig.3. Annual production of natural gas in India [Production rate (109 m3/Year) v/s Year] Water –power: Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 3

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) It is one of the indirect ways in which solar energy is being used. Waterpower is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. Data on the installed capacity of hydro power in India & the electricity produced from it from 1947 onwards is presented in below fig. 4. (103 GWh Fig.4. installed capacity & electricity generation from water-power in India. Nuclear power: Data on the electricity production from nuclear power is plotted in below fig .5. It is seen that the electricity produced has been generally increasing over the years, as more units are getting commissioned. The higher amount, viz 19242 GWh was produced in 2002. The fall in certain years is because of some units being down for maintenance. Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 4

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) YEARS Fig.5. Electricity produced from nuclear power in India Miscellaneous Sources: In India, the miscellaneous sources are renewable source like wind energy, biomass, small hydro-power. As was the case for the world, in India also, wind energy is the main contributor. The growth in installed capacity for wind energy & along with data on the electricity produced from the wind is as shown in below fig. 6. The growth of installed capacity for wind energy in India has been very impressive. At the end of 1990, the capacity was only 37 MW. 15 years later, at the end of 2005, it was 5342 MW & India now ranks 4th in the world in terms of wind power installed capacity. Fig.6. Installed capacity & electricity generation from wind power in India The contribution of small hydro-power & biomass are also significant. Table 2 presents data on the growth of small hydro power & biomass power capacity in the country. Table 2: Installed capacity of small hydro-power units & biomass power in India Year Capacity Small hydro-power Biomass power Up to 2001 1438.89 379.50 2002 80.39 103.00 2003 84.04 129.50 2004 102.27 137.60 Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 5

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