CONSTITUTION OF INDIA… It establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of the government and spells out the Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Duties of citizens. Constitution of India was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and it came into effect on 26th January 1950. Constitution of India declares the Union of India to be a sovereign, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality and liberty and to promote among them all fraternity. It is the longest written constitution in the world. It contained 395 articles, 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA… There are 1,17,369 words in the English version. Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation of our constitution. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. He was known as the Chief Architect of Indian Constitution. Major part of India was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. In this period there was the freedom movement to gain independence from the foreign rule. The movement ended in the formation of India and Pakistan on 15th August 1947.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA… Then we start to govern our country ourselves according to our own constitution from 26th January 1950. WHY DO WE NEED A CONSTITUTION? 1. The first function of a constitution is to provide a set of basic rules which allow for minimum co-ordination among members of a society. 2. The second function of a constitution is to specify who has the power to make decisions in the society. It decides how the government will be constituted. 3. The third function of a constitution is to set some limits on the power of government. Fundamental rights are possessed by the citizens of our country.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA… No government is allowed to violate such rights. Constitution protects the fundamental rights of citizens. Citizens are protected from being arrested arbitrarily and for no reason. This is one limitation on the power of government. Citizens have the right to freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, freedom of association, freedom to conduct a trade or business etc. But these rights can be limited during national emergency and the constitution specifies the circumstances under which these rights may be withdrawn.