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Note for Antenna and wave Propagation - AWP By UPTU Risers

  • Antenna and wave Propagation - AWP
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  • uttar pradesh technical university - uptu
  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
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Syllabus ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Topic Unit I II III IV V No, of Questions Antennas Basics: Introduction, Basic Antenna Parameters, Patterns, Beam Area (or Beam Solid Angle) ΩA, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity D and Gain G, Directivity and Resolution, Antenna Apertures, Effective Height, The radio Communication link, Fields from Oscillating Dipole, Single-to-Noise Ratio(SNR), Antenna Temperature, Antenna Impedance. Application to an Isotropic Source, Radiation Intensity, Arrays of Two Isotropic Point Sources, Non-isotropic but Similar Point Sources and the Principle of Pattern Multiplication, Pattern Synthesis by Pattern Multiplication, Linear Arrays of n Isotropic Point Sources of Equal Amplitude and Spacing, Linear Broadside Arrays with Non- uniform Amplitude Distributions. General Considerations. Electric Dipoles, Thin Liner Antennas and Arrays of Dipoles and Apertures: The Short Electric Dipole, The Fields of a Short Dipole, Radiation Resistance of Short Electric Dipole, Thin Linear Antenna, Radiation Resistance of λ/2 Antenna, Array of Two Driven λ/2 Elements: Broadside Case and End-Fire Case, Horizontal Antennas Above a Plane Ground, Vertical Antennas Above a Plane Ground, YagiUda Antenna Design, Long- Wire Antennas, folded Dipole Antennas. The Loop Antenna: Design and its Characteristic Properties, Application of Loop Antennas, Far Field Patterns of Circular Loop Antennas with Uniform Current, Slot Antennas, Horn Antennas, Helical Antennas, The Log-Periodic Antenna, Micro strip Antennas. Reflector Antennas: Flat Sheet Reflectors, Corner Reflectors, The ParabolaGeneral Properties, A Comparison Between Parabolic and Corner Reflectors, The Paraboloidal Reflector, Patterns of Large Circular Apertures with Uniform Illumination, Reflector Types (summarized), Feed Methods for Parabolic Reflectors. 30 Ground Wave Propagation: Plane Earth Reflection, Space Wave and Surface Wave. Space Wave Propagation: Introduction, Field Strength Relation, Effects of Imperfect Earth, Effects of Curvature of Earth. Sky wave Propagation: Introduction structural Details of the ionosphere, Wave Propagation Mechanism, Refraction and Reflection of Sky Waves by ionosphere, Ray Path, Critical Frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, Virtual Height and Skip Distance, Relation Between MUF and the Skip Distance, Multi-Hop Propagation, Wave Characteristics AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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UNIT-I Content             Antennas Basics: Introduction Basic Antenna Parameters Patterns, Beam Area (or Beam Solid Angle) ΩA Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity D and Gain G Directivity and Resolution Antenna Apertures Effective Height The radio Communication link Fields from Oscillating Dipole Single-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) Antenna Temperature Antenna Impedance AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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Q1 Define An Antenna? Ans :Antenna is a transition device or a transducer between a guided wave and a free space wave or vice-versa. Antenna is also said to be an impedance transforming device. Q2. What Is Meant By Radiation Pattern? Ans: Radiation pattern is the relative distribution of radiated power as a function of distance in space .It is a graph which shows the variation in actual field strength of the EM wave at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna. The energy radiated in a particular direction by an antenna is measured in terms of FIELD STRENGTH. (E Volts/m) Q3. Define Radiation Intensity? Ans: The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle is called the radiation intensity U (watts per steradian or per square degree). The radiation intensity is independent of distance. Q4. Define Beam Efficiency? Ans : The total beam area (WA) consists of the main beam area (WM) plus the minor lobe area (Wm). Thus WA = WM+ Wm. The ratio of the main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency. Beam efficiency (SM) = WM / WA. Q5. Define Directivity? Ans : The directivity of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the maximum power density P (q,f)max to its average value over a sphere as observed in the far field of an antenna. D = P (q,f)max / P(q,f)av. Directivity from Pattern. D = 4p / WA. Directivity from beam area (WA). Q6. What Are The Different Types Of Aperture? Ans :  Effective aperture.  Scattering aperture.  Loss aperture.  Collecting aperture.  Physical aperture. Q7. Define Different Types Of Aperture? Ans :Effective aperture (Ae): It is the area over which the power is extracted from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture (As): It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture (Ae): It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture (Ae): It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture (Ap): This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. Q8. Define Aperture Efficiency? Ans :The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). Q9. What Is Meant By Effective Height? AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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Ans :The effective height h of an antenna is the parameter related to the aperture. It may be defined as the ratio of the induced voltage to the incident field.i.e H= V / E. Q10. What Are The Field Zones? Ans :The fields around an antenna may be divided into two principal regions.  Near field zone (Fresnel zone)  Far field zone (Fraunhofer zone) Q11. What Is Meant By Front To Back Ratio? Ans :It is defined as the ratio of the power radiated in desired direction to the power radiated in the opposite direction. i.e FBR = Power radiated in desired direction / power radiated in the opposite direction. Q12. Define Antenna Efficiency? Ans :The efficiency of an antenna is defined as the ratio of power radiated to the total input power supplied to the antenna. Antenna efficiency = Power radiated / Total input Power. Q13. What Is Meant By Antenna Beam Width? Ans :Antenna beamwidth is a measure of directivity of an antenna. Antenna beam width is an angular width in degrees, measured on the radiation pattern (major lobe) between points where the radiated power has fallen to half its maximum value. This is called as "beam width" between half power points or half power beam width.(HPBW). Q14. What Is Meant By Isotropic Radiator? Ans :A isotropic radiator is a fictitious radiator and is defined as a radiator which radiates fields uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic source or omni directional radiator or simply unipole. Q15. Define Gain? Ans :The ratio of maximum radiation intensity in given direction to the maximum radiation intensity from a reference antenna produced in the same direction with same input power. i.e Maximum radiation intensity from test antenna (G)= Maximum radiation intensity from the reference antenna with same input power. Q16. Define Self Impedance? Ans :Self impedance of an antenna is defined as its input impedance with all other antennas are completely removed i.e away from it. Q17. Define Mutual Impedance? Ans :The presence of near by antenna no.2 induces a current in the antenna no.1 indicates that presence of antenna no.2 changes the impedance of the antenna no.1. This effect is called mutual coupling and results in mutual impedance. AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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