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Note for Antenna and wave Propagation - AWP By UPTU Risers

• Antenna and wave Propagation - AWP
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• uttar pradesh technical university - uptu
• Electronics and Communication Engineering
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ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION (REC-051) B.Tech 3rd Year (EC Branch) Mr. Navneet Pal Assistant Professor Electronics & Communication Department AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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Syllabus ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Topic Unit I II III IV V No, of Questions Antennas Basics: Introduction, Basic Antenna Parameters, Patterns, Beam Area (or Beam Solid Angle) ΩA, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity D and Gain G, Directivity and Resolution, Antenna Apertures, Effective Height, The radio Communication link, Fields from Oscillating Dipole, Single-to-Noise Ratio(SNR), Antenna Temperature, Antenna Impedance. Application to an Isotropic Source, Radiation Intensity, Arrays of Two Isotropic Point Sources, Non-isotropic but Similar Point Sources and the Principle of Pattern Multiplication, Pattern Synthesis by Pattern Multiplication, Linear Arrays of n Isotropic Point Sources of Equal Amplitude and Spacing, Linear Broadside Arrays with Non- uniform Amplitude Distributions. General Considerations. Electric Dipoles, Thin Liner Antennas and Arrays of Dipoles and Apertures: The Short Electric Dipole, The Fields of a Short Dipole, Radiation Resistance of Short Electric Dipole, Thin Linear Antenna, Radiation Resistance of λ/2 Antenna, Array of Two Driven λ/2 Elements: Broadside Case and End-Fire Case, Horizontal Antennas Above a Plane Ground, Vertical Antennas Above a Plane Ground, YagiUda Antenna Design, Long- Wire Antennas, folded Dipole Antennas. The Loop Antenna: Design and its Characteristic Properties, Application of Loop Antennas, Far Field Patterns of Circular Loop Antennas with Uniform Current, Slot Antennas, Horn Antennas, Helical Antennas, The Log-Periodic Antenna, Micro strip Antennas. Reflector Antennas: Flat Sheet Reflectors, Corner Reflectors, The ParabolaGeneral Properties, A Comparison Between Parabolic and Corner Reflectors, The Paraboloidal Reflector, Patterns of Large Circular Apertures with Uniform Illumination, Reflector Types (summarized), Feed Methods for Parabolic Reflectors. 30 Ground Wave Propagation: Plane Earth Reflection, Space Wave and Surface Wave. Space Wave Propagation: Introduction, Field Strength Relation, Effects of Imperfect Earth, Effects of Curvature of Earth. Sky wave Propagation: Introduction structural Details of the ionosphere, Wave Propagation Mechanism, Refraction and Reflection of Sky Waves by ionosphere, Ray Path, Critical Frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, Virtual Height and Skip Distance, Relation Between MUF and the Skip Distance, Multi-Hop Propagation, Wave Characteristics AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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UNIT-I Content             Antennas Basics: Introduction Basic Antenna Parameters Patterns, Beam Area (or Beam Solid Angle) ΩA Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity D and Gain G Directivity and Resolution Antenna Apertures Effective Height The radio Communication link Fields from Oscillating Dipole Single-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) Antenna Temperature Antenna Impedance AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)

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Q1 Define An Antenna? Ans :Antenna is a transition device or a transducer between a guided wave and a free space wave or vice-versa. Antenna is also said to be an impedance transforming device. Q2. What Is Meant By Radiation Pattern? Ans: Radiation pattern is the relative distribution of radiated power as a function of distance in space .It is a graph which shows the variation in actual field strength of the EM wave at all points which are at equal distance from the antenna. The energy radiated in a particular direction by an antenna is measured in terms of FIELD STRENGTH. (E Volts/m) Q3. Define Radiation Intensity? Ans: The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle is called the radiation intensity U (watts per steradian or per square degree). The radiation intensity is independent of distance. Q4. Define Beam Efficiency? Ans : The total beam area (WA) consists of the main beam area (WM) plus the minor lobe area (Wm). Thus WA = WM+ Wm. The ratio of the main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency. Beam efficiency (SM) = WM / WA. Q5. Define Directivity? Ans : The directivity of an antenna is equal to the ratio of the maximum power density P (q,f)max to its average value over a sphere as observed in the far field of an antenna. D = P (q,f)max / P(q,f)av. Directivity from Pattern. D = 4p / WA. Directivity from beam area (WA). Q6. What Are The Different Types Of Aperture? Ans :  Effective aperture.  Scattering aperture.  Loss aperture.  Collecting aperture.  Physical aperture. Q7. Define Different Types Of Aperture? Ans :Effective aperture (Ae): It is the area over which the power is extracted from the incident wave and delivered to the load is called effective aperture. Scattering aperture (As): It is the ratio of the reradiated power to the power density of the incident wave. Loss aperture (Ae): It is the area of the antenna which dissipates power as heat. Collecting aperture (Ae): It is the addition of above three apertures. Physical aperture (Ap): This aperture is a measure of the physical size of the antenna. Q8. Define Aperture Efficiency? Ans :The ratio of the effective aperture to the physical aperture is the aperture efficiency. i.e Aperture efficiency = hap = Ae / Ap (dimensionless). Q9. What Is Meant By Effective Height? AWP (REC-011) By: Navneet Pal (Assistant Professor)