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Note for Surveying-1 - s-1 By ONKAR PATANGE

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b) Geodetic surveying. 1.The curvature of the earth is taken. 2.A line joining any two points is considered as curved line. 3.The triangle formed by any three points is considered as spherical triangle. 4.It is done on a area greater than 250 Km 2 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Classify surveying based on the equipments. Chain surveying Compass surveying Plane table surveying Theodolite surveying Tacheometric surveying Photogram metric surveying Aerial surveying 6 Explain the constructions of a diagonal scale. For a given short length ( PQ=PR), draw a right angle triangle. Its base( PR) and height (PQ) are equal. A short length is divided into a number of parts by using the principle of similar triangles in which like sides are proportional. Thus, 1-1 represents 1/ 10 PQ 9-9 represents 9/ 10 PQ 7. Define chain surveying. What is the fundamental principle of chain surveying? Chain surveying is the type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made in the field.

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The main principle of chain surveying or chain triangulation is to provide a framework consist of number of well-conditioned triangles or nearly equilateral triangles. It is used to find the area of the field. 8. What is a well-conditioned triangle? What is its specific advantage? A triangle is said to be well- conditioned or well proportioned when it contains no angle smaller than 300 and no angle greater than 1200 . The main principle of chain surveying is chain triangulation. It consists of frame work of triangles. To plot the network of triangles accurately, the triangles must be nearly equal to equilateral or well-conditioned. The distortion due to errors in measurement and plotting should be minimum. 9. What are the operations involved in chain survey? (i). Ranging: The process of locating intermediate points on a straight line between two end points in a straight line. (ii). Chaining: The process of measuring the distance with a chain or tape. (iii). Offsetting: The process of measuring the lateral distance of the object from the survey line to the left or right according to their positions. 10. What are the instruments required for a chain survey? Chain or tape, Arrows, Pegs, Ranging rods, Offset rods, Laths or whites, Plumb bob, Cross staff and Mallet. 11. Write the different types of Chain. (i). Metric chain

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(ii). Non-Metric chain (a).Gunter's chain or Surveyor's chain (b). Engineer's chain (c). Revenue chain (d). Steel band. 1. Differentiate between Gunter's chain and Engineer's Chain Gunter's chain or Surveyor's chain It is 66 feet long and divided in to 100 links. 1link = 0.66 feet Measurements are in miles and furlongs. Engineer's chain It is 100 feet long and divided in to 100 links. 1link = 1 feet Measurements are in feet and decimals 12. What are the instruments used for setting out right angles to a chain line? (i). Cross staff. a. Open cross staff b. French cross staff c. Adjustable cross staff (ii). Optical square. (iii). Prism square (iv). Site square. 13. What are offsets? Classify them. An offset is the lateral distance of an object or ground feature measured from a survey line. The two types of offsets are,

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(i). Perpendicular offset: The angle of offset from a point on a chain line is 900. 14. What is the use of a line Ranger? The line Ranger is a small reflecting instrument used for fixing intermediate points on the chain lines. Without going to either end, we can fix the intermediate points. 15. What are the stages of fieldwork in chain surveying? Or What are the steps involved in chain survey? 1. Reconnaissance: It is the preliminary inspection of the area to be surveyed. 2. Marking and fixing Survey lines. 3. Running survey lines. 4. Taking Offsets. 16. What are the different tape corrections? 1. Correction for absolute length or standardisation. 2. Correction for temperature. 3. Correction for pull or tension. 4. Correction for sag. (- ve) 5. Correction for slope. (- ve) 17. What are the errors in chaining? (i). Compensating Errors: Which are liable to occur in either direction and tend to compensate.

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