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Note for Microprocessor - MP By Srikrishna Thota

  • Microprocessor - MP
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Srikrishna Thota
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• This unit performs all the logical and arithmetic operations. • Various arithmetic operations are: addition, subtraction, increment and decrement etc. • Various logical operations are: AND, OR, NOT, XOR, etc. TIMING AND CONTROL UNIT • This unit controls the entire operations being performed by the system. • It controls the operations of ALU, input/output devices and memory unit. • This unit interprets the instructions and generates various timing and control signals. REGISTERS • A register is a very small amount of very fast memory that is built into the CPU in order to store the current data and instructions which are being executed by the CPU.  MEMORY UNIT • • • • It stores the program statement and the data i.e. the information supplied from the input unit. It also stores the final output. This is connected to the CPU by means of a bidirectional bus. The CPU processes the information as taken from the memory and performs the operations in the ALU section. • The results are either transferred to the output unit or stored in the memory for later use by the CPU.

Text from page-4

A MICRO-COMPUTER • As the name implies, microcomputers are small computers. • The block diagram of the microcomputer is similar to the computer except that the central processing unit of the microcomputer is contained in a single IC called the microprocessor. • A microprocessor is a LSI (Large Scale Integration) IC that does almost all the functions of the CPU. • It is also defined as a CPU contained in a single chip. The basic function of the microprocessor is: • to fetch the instructions stored in the main memory • identify the operations and the devices involved in it • and accordingly generate control signals to determine when a given action is to take place. We can say that a CPU is known as computer with a microprocessor as its Microcomputer. Some Definitions MICROPROCESSOR: • The central processing unit built on a single IC is called Microprocessor. • A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated as µP) is a digital electronic component with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). • One or more microprocessors typically serve as a central processing unit (CPU) in a computer system or handheld device

Text from page-5

MICROCOMPUTER: • A digital computer, in which one microprocessor has been provided to act as a CPU, is called Microcomputer. • A desktop computer, laptop, notebook, palmtop, etc. contain one microprocessor to act as a CPU and hence they come under the category of microcomputer. • The term microcomputer is generally synonymous with personal computer. MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEM: • The CPU of a large powerful digital computer contains more than one microprocessor. • High-end powerful servers, mainframe computers, supercomputers, etc. contain more than one microprocessor to act as CPU. • A computer whose CPU contains more than one microprocessor is called Multiprocessor System.

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MICROPROCESSOR CHARACTERISTICS Instruction Set: The set of instructions that a microprocessor can understand. Bandwidth: The number of bits processed in a single instruction. Capability: It depends upon the number of instructions and capability of each instruction. Clock Speed: • The clock speed determines how many operations per second the processor can perform. It is also called Clock Rate. • Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes the various computer components. • The faster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. • Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). • The microprocessors of personal computers have clock speeds of anywhere from 300 MHz to over 3.8 GHz. Word Length: • It depends upon the width of internal data bus, registers, ALU etc. • An 8-bit microprocessor can process 8 bit data at a time. • A processor with longer word length is more powerful and can process data at a faster speed as compared to processor with shorter word length. • The word length ranges from 4 bits for small microprocessor, to 64 bits for high-end microcomputers.

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