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Note for Image Processing - IP By Udaya Bhanu Pradhan

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Image Processing 10EC763 INDEX SHEET SL.NO I 1.1 1.2 1.3 II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 III 3.1 3.2 3.3 IV 4.1 4.2 4.3 V 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 VI 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 VII 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 VIII 8.1 TOPIC Unit-1: DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS What is Digital Image Processing? fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing, Components of an Image processing system UNIT – 2 : DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS Image Sensing and Acquisition, Image Sampling and Quantization, SomeBasic Relationships between Pixels, Linear and Nonlinear Operations UNIT - 3 : IMAGE TRANSFORMS Two-dimensional orthogonal & unitary transforms properties of unitary transforms, two dimensional discrete Fourier transform UNIT – 4 : IMAGE TRANSFORMS Walsh Transform Hadamard transform KL transform UNIT – 5 : IMAGE ENHANCEMENT PAGE NO. 1-8 9-17 18-24 25-31 32-40 Image Enhancement in Spatial domain, Some Basic Gray Level Trans -formations Histogram Processing, Enhancement Using Arithmetic/Logic operations. UNIT-6 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT Basics of Spatial Filtering Image enhancement in the Frequency Domain filters, Smoothing Frequency Domain filters, Sharpening Frequency Domain filters homomorphic filtering 41-51 UNIT-7 IMAGE RESTORATION 52-69 Model of image degradation restoration process, noise models, Restoration in the Presence of Noise, Only-Spatial Filtering Periodic Noise Reduction by Frequency Domain Filtering, Linear Position-Invariant Degradations inverse filtering minimum mean square error (Weiner) Filtering UNIT-8 COLOR FUNDAMENTALS Color Fundamentals. Dept. of ECE/SJBIT 70-87

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Image Processing 8.2 8.3 8.4 Color Models, Pseudo color Image Processing processing basics of full color image processing Dept. of ECE/SJBIT 10EC763

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Image Processing 10EC763 Unit-1 Introduction 1.1 What Is Digital Image Processing? An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function, f(x, y), where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y, and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. Note that a digital image is composed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value. These elements are referred to as picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image. 1.2 Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing It is helpful to divide the material covered in the following chapters into the two broad categories defined in Section 1.1: methods whose input and output are images, and methods whose inputs may be images, but whose outputs are attributes extracted from those images..The diagram does not imply that every process is applied to an image. Rather, the intention is to convey an idea of all the methodologies that can be applied to images for different purposes and possibly with different objectives. Image acquisition is the first process acquisition could be as simple as being given an image that is already in digital form. Generally, the image acquisition stage involves preprocessing, such as scaling. Image enhancement is among the simplest and most appealing areas of digital image processing. Basically, the idea behind enhancement techniques is to bring out detail that is obscured, or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. A familiar example of enhancement is when we increase the contrast of an image because “it looks Dept. ofECE, ECE/SJBIT Dept. of ACE ACE Page 1

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Image Processing 10EC763 better.” It is important to keep in mind that enhancement is a very subjective area of image processing Image restoration is an area that also deals with improving the appearance of an image. However, unlike enhancement, which is subjective, image restoration is objective, in the sense that restoration techniques tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation. Enhancement, on the other hand, is based on human subjective preferences regarding what constitutes a “good” enhancement result. Color image processing is an area that has been gaining in importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. fundamental concepts in color models and basic color processing in a digital domain. Color is used also in later chapters as the basis for extracting features of interest in an image. Dept. ofECE, ECE/SJBIT /ACE Dept. of ACE Page 2

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