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Note of Physics for 12th standard with JEE solved by Manjunatha Parameshwarappa

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Digital Electronics Dr. Manjunatha. P manjup.jnnce@gmail.com Professor Dept. of ECE J.N.N. College of Engineering, Shimoga August 4, 2018

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Overview Overview Semiconductor Basics Logic Gates 1 2 3 Truth table Clock waveform IC pin details AIPMT/JEE/CET Papers Dr. Manjunatha. P (JNNCE) Digital Electronics August 4, 2018 2 / 67

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Classification of materials Classification of materials Classification of materials Classification Of materials based on resistivity/conductivity Materials Metals Semiconductors Insulators Resistivity Ω Ohm meter Conductivity σ Siemen per meter 10−2 − 10−8 Ωm 10−5 − 106 Ωm 1011 − 1019 Ωm 102 − 108 Sm−1 105 − 10−6 Sm−1 102 − 10−11 Sm−19 Classification Of materials based on energy bands Inside the crystal each electron has a unique position and no two electrons see exactly the same pattern of surrounding charges. Hence each electron will have a different energy level. These different energy levels with continuous energy variation form energy bands. The energy band which including the energy levels of the valence electrons is called the valence band. The energy band above the valence band is called the conduction band. The gap between the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band is called the energy band gap (Energy gap Eg ). Dr. Manjunatha. P (JNNCE) Digital Electronics August 4, 2018 3 / 67

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Classification of materials Classification of materials Conduction Band Electron Energies Ec Eg  0 E g ; 3 eV E g < 3 eV Ev Valence Band Metals Semiconductors Insulators Figure 1 In metals, conduction and valance bands overlap each other. In semiconductors small band gap (Eg < 3eV ) exists between conduction and valance band. In Insulators large band gap (Eg > 3eV ) exists between conduction and valance band. Dr. Manjunatha. P (JNNCE) Digital Electronics August 4, 2018 4 / 67

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