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Note for Embedded System - ES by yasir lone

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction An embedded system is a computer system which performs a specific function according to our given application requirements with specific hardware environment. Some critical applications such as automotive design, controls designs (robotic machine), railways, aircraft, aerospace, DNA Sequencing, neural network, Eye lens design and fingerprinting currently working on embedded technology [Fig 1.1]. The higher processing units and efficient memory management scheme are required to solve application dependent problems and embedded system implements our real-time applications development activity. Currently Multi-core and/or multi-threaded architectures used in the market for achieving high performance. An embedded system easily completes the computation task according to hardware units (memory and processor) require to reduce challenges arises in terms of scheduling time, low power, temperature, scalability, design complexity, efficiency, flexibility and heterogeneity. Efficient co-design technology is required to reduce the operational complexity and challenges of application designing and effective memory design is required to reduce the operational complexity of the given application. An Embedded processor evolution mechanism is required for an increasing number of features at lower power and integrated into a single chip. The Embedded system challenge is implemented with reduction of power consumption and integration of heterogeneous systems into the single chip to reduce area, power and delay. An Embedded system consists of ASICs, ASIP and field programming gate array as well as the programming unit such as the DSP and these processor designs are used in various situations or time to market. A 1

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typical hardware architecture of an embedded system used custom hardware with embedded software. The software environment implements application developments and compilation process and hardware units‟ implement user logic or behavior synthesis. The Hardware side of design most likely consists of interconnection components such as processors, memories and communication units (buses, output/input device I/O interfaces, sensor, RTOS devices etc.) [Fig. 1.1]. Embedded systems have used some specific constraints such as real time design metrics are a measurement of an application features such as Cost, Size, Power and High Performances. Reactive and real time design metrics required to implement the computing results which used in real time environments without any delay. Currently embedded system designer are being designed on a silicon chip and also design for critical applications like killer application (smart phone), smart card, video game, mobile internet, handheld embedded system, GBPS device, gigabyte per second LAN system. An Embedded system has basic needs for high performance is given as below. Cost reduction for real-time design implementation Short time span for application execution and Complexity reductive architectures Runtime-aware architectures and Deploying time-analyzable Effective resource management schemes and runtime aware environments Effective simulation tools that allow us to make design space explorations and are used for comparisons between different hardware/software designs. Embedded design requires a temperature- aware OS solution for real-time and high-performance systems. Effective compiler technology Applicable for high-performance computing (HPC) and realtime embedded computing (EC) world. 2

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Fig. 1.1 Application requirements based embedded system design 1.2 Embedded components Embedded system is used High-performance processors, memory architectures and various communication design and these infrastructures are very pervasive in our real-time computing world. Embedded system components are used to implement the design interface, exchanging run-time information, monitoring according to our application demanding. An Embedded system is designed for efficient and effective resources at a low cost. An effective network processor requirement in embedded systems is to reduce the complexity of underlying computing, communications, sensing and control mechanism. An Embedded system has basic elements are given below. 1.2.1 Processor and co-processor units/system 1.2.2 Memory units/system 1.2.3 Communication interface (I/O interfaces, buses, output/input devices, RTOS etc.) and peripheral units/system 3

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1.2.1 Processor and co-processor system Embedded processor technology used to easily meet the architecture of the computation engine and implements a system‟s desired functionality [Fig. 1.2]. Each processor system has specific features and it‟s designed to implement a specific task. The processor design is manifesting with different design metrics such as cost, power, size and real-time developments. Commercially two types of microprocessor RISC and CISC are used in various high-performance embedded computing. The processor unit contains pipeline unit which is controlled by DMA circuits. There are two kinds of pipeline commonly used in processor arithmetic pipeline and instruction pipeline. An instruction pipeline operates on a stream of instructions by overlapping fetch, decode, and execute phases of the instruction cycles. Currently, long instruction memory plays a dominant role in the pipeline mechanism [Fig. 1.3]. Various Pipeline mechanisms are used by various processor developer companies such as ARM, Intel and Motorola etc. according to their performance. Fig. 1.2 Basic Processor design 4

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