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# Note for Digital Image Processing - DIP by Ayush Sinha

• Digital Image Processing - DIP
• Note
• Dr. A PJ Abdul Kalam Tech University Lucknow - AKTU
• Computer Science Engineering
• B.Tech
• 11 Views
0 User(s)

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for more :- http://www.UandiStar.org Digital Image Processing    Unit‐I  images, but its outputs are attributes extracted from those images (e.g., edges, contours, and the identity of individual objects). Finally, higher-level processing involves “making sense” of an ensemble of recognized objects, as in image analysis, and, at the far end of the continuum, performing the cognitive functions normally associated with vision and, in addition, encompasses processes that extract attributes from images, up to and including the recognition of individual objects. As a simple illustration to clarify these concepts, consider the area of automated analysis of text. The processes of acquiring an image of the area containing the text, preprocessing that image, extracting (segmenting) the individual characters, describing the characters in a form suitable for computer processing, and recognizing those individual characters are in the scope of what we call digital image processing. Representing Digital Images: We will use two principal ways to represent digital images. Assume that an image f(x, y) is sampled so that the resulting digital image has M rows and N columns. The values of the coordinates (x, y) now become discrete quantities. For notational clarity and convenience, we shall use integer values for these discrete coordinates. Thus, the values of the coordinates at the origin are (x, y) = (0, 0). The next coordinate values along the first row of the image are represented as (x, y) = (0, 1). It is important to keep in mind that the notation (0, 1) is used to signify the second sample along the first row. It does not mean that these are the actual values of physical coordinates when the image was sampled. Figure 1 shows the coordinate convention used. Fig 1 Coordinate convention used to represent digital images GRIET‐ECE    2  100% free SMS:- ON<space>UandiStar to 9870807070 for JNTU, Job Alerts, Tech News , GK News directly to ur Mobile

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for more :- http://www.UandiStar.org Digital Image Processing    Unit‐I  The notation introduced in the preceding paragraph allows us to write the complete M*N digital image in the following compact matrix form: The right side of this equation is by definition a digital image. Each element of this matrix array is called an image element, picture element, pixel, or pel. 2. What are the fundamental steps in Digital Image Processing? Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing: Image acquisition is the first process shown in Fig.2. Note that acquisition could be as simple as being given an image that is already in digital form. Generally, the image acquisition stage involves preprocessing, such as scaling. Image enhancement is among the simplest and most appealing areas of digital image processing. Basically, the idea behind enhancement techniques is to bring out detail that is obscured, or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. A familiar example of enhancement is when we increase the contrast of an image because “it looks better.” It is important to keep in mind that enhancement is a very subjective area of image processing. Image restoration is an area that also deals with improving the appearance of an image. However, unlike enhancement, which is subjective, image restoration is objective, in the sense that restoration techniques tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation. Enhancement, on the other hand, is based on human subjective preferences regarding what constitutes a “good” enhancement result. Color image processing is an area that has been gaining in importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. GRIET‐ECE    3  100% free SMS:- ON<space>UandiStar to 9870807070 for JNTU, Job Alerts, Tech News , GK News directly to ur Mobile

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for more :- http://www.UandiStar.org Digital Image Processing    Unit‐I  Fig.2. Fundamental steps in Digital Image Processing Wavelets are the foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution.  Compression, as the name implies, deals with techniques for reducing the storage required to save an image, or the bandwidth required to transmit it. Although storage technology has improved significantly over the past decade, the same cannot be said for transmission capacity. This is true particularly in uses of the Internet, which are characterized by significant pictorial content. Image compression is familiar (perhaps inadvertently) to most users of computers in the form of image file extensions, such as the jpg file extension used in the JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard. Morphological processing deals with tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape. Segmentation procedures partition an image into its constituent parts or objects. In general, autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in digital image processing. A rugged segmentation procedure brings the process a long way toward successful solution of imaging problems that require objects to be identified individually. On the other hand, weak or erratic segmentation algorithms almost always guarantee eventual failure. In general, the more accurate the segmentation, the more likely recognition is to succeed. GRIET‐ECE    4  100% free SMS:- ON<space>UandiStar to 9870807070 for JNTU, Job Alerts, Tech News , GK News directly to ur Mobile

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for more :- http://www.UandiStar.org Digital Image Processing    Unit‐I  Representation and description almost always follow the output of a segmentation stage, which usually is raw pixel data, constituting either the boundary of a region (i.e., the set of pixels separating one image region from another) or all the points in the region itself. In either case, converting the data to a form suitable for computer processing is necessary. The first decision that must be made is whether the data should be represented as a boundary or as a complete region. Boundary representation is appropriate when the focus is on external shape characteristics, such as corners and inflections. Regional representation is appropriate when the focus is on internal properties, such as texture or skeletal shape. In some applications, these representations complement each other. Choosing a representation is only part of the solution for transforming raw data into a form suitable for subsequent computer processing. A method must also be specified for describing the data so that features of interest are highlighted. Description, also called feature selection, deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interest or are basic for differentiating one class of objects from another.   Recognition is the process that assigns a label (e.g., “vehicle”) to an object based on its descriptors. We conclude our coverage of digital image processing with the development of methods for recognition of individual objects. 3. What are the components of an Image Processing System? Components of an Image Processing System: As recently as the mid-1980s, numerous models of image processing systems being sold throughout the world were rather substantial peripheral devices that attached to equally substantial host computers. Late in the 1980s and early in the 1990s, the market shifted to image processing hardware in the form of single boards designed to be compatible with industry standard buses and to fit into engineering workstation cabinets and personal computers. In addition to lowering costs, this market shift also served as a catalyst for a significant number of new companies whose specialty is the development of software written specifically for image processing. Although large-scale image processing systems still are being sold for massive imaging applications, such as processing of satellite images, the trend continues toward miniaturizing and blending of general-purpose small computers with specialized image processing hardware. Figure 3 shows the basic components comprising a typical general-purpose system used for digital image processing. The function of each component is discussed in the following paragraphs, starting with image sensing. With reference to sensing, two elements are required to acquire digital images. The first is a physical device that is sensitive to the energy radiated by the object we wish to image. The second, called a digitizer, is a device for converting the output of the physical sensing device into GRIET‐ECE    5  100% free SMS:- ON<space>UandiStar to 9870807070 for JNTU, Job Alerts, Tech News , GK News directly to ur Mobile