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Note for Mobile Computing - MC by shaik shabeer

  • Mobile Computing - MC
  • Note
  • nimra college of engineering and technology - ncet
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 13 Topics
  • 1142 Views
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  • Uploaded 4 months ago
Shaik Shabeer
Shaik Shabeer
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APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING In many fields of work, the ability to keep on the move is vital in order to utilise time efficiently. The importance of Mobile Computers has been highlighted in many fields of which a few are described below: a. Vehicles: Music, news, road conditions, weather reports, and other broadcast information are received via digital audio broadcasting (DAB) with 1.5 Mbit/s. For personal communication, a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) phone might be available offering voice and data connectivity with 384 kbit/s. The current position of the car is determined via the global positioning system (GPS). Cars driving in the same area build a local ad-hoc network for the fast exchange of information in emergency situations or to help each other keep a safe distance. In case of an accident, not only will the airbag be triggered, but the police and ambulance service will be informed via an emergency call to a service provider. Buses, trucks, and trains are already transmitting maintenance and logistic information to their home base, which helps to improve organization (fleet management), and saves time and money. b. Emergencies: An ambulance with a high-quality wireless connection to a hospital can carry vital information about injured persons to the hospital from the scene of the accident. All the necessary steps for this particular type of accident can be prepared and specialists can be consulted for an early diagnosis. Wireless networks are the only means of communication in the case of natural disasters such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In the worst cases, only decentralized, wireless ad-hoc networks survive. c. Business: Managers can use mobile computers say, critical presentations to major customers. They can access the latest market share information. At a small recess, they can revise the presentation to take advantage of this information. They can communicate with the office about possible new offers and call meetings for discussing responds to the new proposals. Therefore, mobile computers can leverage competitive ad a tages. A tra elli g sales a toda eeds i sta t a ess to the o pa ’s data ase: to ensure that files on his or her laptop reflect the current situation, to enable the company to keep track of all activities of their travelling employees, to keep databases consistent etc. With wireless access, the laptop can be turned into a true mobile office, but efficient and powerful synchronization mechanisms are needed to ensure data consistency. 2

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d. Replacement of Wired Networks: wireless networks can also be used to replace wired networks, e.g., remote sensors, for tradeshows, or in historic buildings. Due to economic reasons, it is often impossible to wire remote sensors for weather forecasts, earthquake detection, or to provide environmental information. Wireless connections, e.g., via satellite, can help in this situation. Other examples for wireless networks are computers, sensors, or information displays in historical buildings, where excess cabling may destroy valuable walls or floors. e. Infotainment: wireless networks can provide up-to-date information at any appropriate location. The travel guide might tell you something about the history of a building (knowing via GPS, contact to a local base station, or triangulation where you are) downloading information about a concert in the building at the same evening via a local wireless network. Another growing field of wireless network applications lies in entertainment and games to enable, e.g., ad-hoc gaming networks as soon as people meet to play together. Limitations of Mobile Computing    Resource constraints: Battery      Interference: Radio transmission cannot be protected against interference using shielding and result in higher loss rates for transmitted data or higher bit error rates respectively Bandwidth: Although they are continuously increasing, transmission rates are still very low for wireless devices compared to desktop systems.  Researchers look for more efficient communication protocols with low overhead.  Dynamic changes in communication environment: variations in signal power within a region,  thus link delays and connection losses  Network Issues: discovery of the connection-service to destination and connection stability    Interoperability issues: the varying protocol standards 3

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 Security constraints: Not only can portable devices be stolen more easily, but the radio interface is also prone to the dangers of eavesdropping. Wireless access must always include encryption, authentication, and other security mechanisms that must  be efficient and simple to use. A simplified reference model The figure shows the protocol stack implemented in the system according to the reference model. End-systems, such as the PDA and computer in the example, need a full protocol stack comprising the application layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer, and physical layer. Applications on the end-systems communicate with each other using the lower layer services. Intermediate systems, such as the interworking unit, do not necessarily need all of the layers. A Simplified Reference Model Physical layer: This is the lowest layer in a communication system and is responsible for the conversion of a stream of bits into signals that can be transmitted on the sender side. The physical layer of the receiver then transforms the signals back into a bit stream. For wireless communication, the physical layer is responsible for frequency selection, generation of the carrier frequency, signal detection (although heavy interference may disturb the signal), modulation of data onto a carrier frequency and (depending on the transmission scheme) encryption. ● Data link layer: The main tasks of this layer include accessing the medium, multiplexing of different data streams, correction of transmission errors, and synchronization (i.e., detection of a data frame). Altogether, the data link layer is responsible for a reliable point-to-point ● 4

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connection between two devices or a point-to-multipoint connection between one sender and several receivers. Network layer: This third layer is responsible for routing packets through a network or establishing a connection between two entities over many other intermediate systems. Important functions are addressing, routing, device location, and handover between different networks. ● Transport layer: This layer is used in the reference model to establish an end-to-end connection ● Application layer: Finally, the applications (complemented by additional layers that can support applications) are situated on top of all transmission oriented layers. Functions are service location, support for multimedia applications, adaptive applications that can handle the large variations in transmission characteristics, and wireless access to the world-wide web using a portable device. ● GSM : Mobile services, System architecture, Radio interface, Protocols, Localization and calling, Handover, Security, and New data services. GSM Services GSM is the most successful digital mobile telecommunication system in the world today. It is used by over 800 million people in more than 190 countries. GSM permits the integration of different voice and data services and the interworking with existing networks. Services make a network interesting for customers. GSM has defined three different categories of services: bearer, tele and supplementary services. Bearer services: GSM specifies different mechanisms for data transmission, the original GSM allowing for data rates of up to 9600 bit/s for non-voice services. Bearer services permit transparent and non-transparent, synchronous or asynchronous data transmission. Transparent bearer services only use the functions of the physical layer (layer 1) to transmit data. Data transmission has a constant delay and throughput if no transmission errors occur. Transmission quality can be improved with the use of forward error correction (FEC), which codes redundancy into the data stream and helps to reconstruct the original data in case of transmission errors. Transparent bearer services do not try to recover lost data in case of, for example, shadowing or interruptions due to handover. Non-transparent bearer services use protocols of layers two and three to implement error correction and flow control. These services use the transparent bearer services, adding a radio link protocol (RLP). This protocol comprises mechanisms of high-level data link control (HDLC), and special selective-reject mechanisms to trigger retransmission of erroneous data. 5

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