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Note for System Analysis and Design - SAD By Virat Kumar

  • System Analysis and Design - SAD
  • Note
  • Govt polytechnic muzaffarpur - GPMuz
  • Computer Science Engineering
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 Understand users jargon and practices.  R esource & project m anagem ent.  Change & risk m anagem ent.  Understand the m anagem ent functions thoroughly. Technical Skills  Knowledge of com puters and software.  Keep abreast of m odern developm ent.  Know of system design tools.  B readth k nowledge about new technologies. What is Requirements Determination? A requirement is a vital feature of a new system which may include processing or capturing of data, controlling the activities of business, producing information and supporting the management. Requirements determination involves studying the existing system and gathering details to find out what are the requirements, how it works, and where improvements should be made. Major Activities in requirement Determination Requirements Anticipation  I t predicts the characteristics of system based on previous ex perience which include certain problem s or features and requirem ents for a new system .  I t can lead to analysis of areas that would otherwise go unnoticed by inex perienced analyst. B ut if shortcuts are tak en and bias is introduced in conducting the investigation, then requirem ent Anticipation can be half-bak ed. Requirements I nvestigation  I t is studying the current system and docum enting its features for further analysis.  I t is at the heart of system analysis where analyst docum enting and describing system features using fact-finding techniques, prototyping, and com puter assisted tools. Requirements Specifications  I t includes the analysis of data which determ ine the requirem ent specification, description of features for new system , and specifying what inform ation requirem ents will be provided.  I t includes analysis of factual data, identification of essential requirem ents, and selection of R equirem ent-fulfillm ent strategies.

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I nformation Gathering Techniques The main aim of fact finding techniques is to determine the information requirements of an organization used by analysts to prepare a precise SRS understood by user. I deal SRS Document should  be com plete, Unam biguous, and Jargon-free.  specify operational, tactical, and strategic inform ation requirem ents.  solve possible disputes between users and analyst.  use graphical aids which sim plify understanding and design. There are various information gathering techniques I nterviewing Systems analyst collects information from individuals or groups by interviewing. The analyst can be formal, legalistic, play politics, or be informal; as the success of an interview depends on the skill of analyst as interviewer. I t can be done in two ways  U n s tru ctu red I n terv iew   T he system analyst conducts question-answer session to acquire basic inform ation of the system .  S tru ctu red I n terv iew   I t has standard questions which user need to respond in either close (objective) or open (descriptive) form at. Advan tages of I n terview in g  T his m ethod is frequently the best source of gathering qualitative inform ation.  I t is useful for them , who do not com m unicate effectively in writing or who m ay not have the tim e to com plete questionnaire.  I nform ation can easily be validated and cross check ed im m ediately.  I t can handle the com plex subjects.  I t is easy to discover k ey problem by seek ing opinions.  I t bridges the gaps in the areas of m isunderstandings and m inim izes future problem s. Questionnaires This method is used by analyst to gather information about various issues of system from large number of persons. There are two types of questionnaires  O p en -en d ed Q u es tio n n aires   I t consists of questions that can be easily and correctly interpreted. T hey can ex plore a problem and lead to a specific direction of answer.

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 Clo s ed -en d ed Q u es tio n n aires   I t consists of questions that are used when the system s analyst effectively lists all possible responses, which are m utually ex clusive. Advan tages of qu estion n aires  I t is very effective in surveying interests, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs of users which are not co-located.  I t is useful in situation to k now what proportion of a given group approves or disapproves of a particular feature of the proposed system .  I t is useful to determ ine the overall opinion before giving any specific direction to the system project.  I t is m ore reliable and provides high confidentiality of honest responses.  I t is appropriate for electing factual inform ation and for statistical data collection which can be em ailed and sent by post. Review of Records, Procedures, and Forms Review of existing records, procedures, and forms helps to seek insight into a system which describes the current system capabilities, its operations, or activities. Advan tages  I t helps user to gain som e k nowledge about the organization or operations by them selves before they im pose upon others.  I t helps in docum enting current operations within short span of tim e as the procedure m anuals and form s describe the form at and functions of present system .  I t can provide a clear understanding about the transactions that are handled in the organization, identifying input for processing, and evaluating perform ance.  I t can help an analyst to understand the system in term s of the operations that m ust be supported.  I t describes the problem , its affected parts, and the proposed solution. Observation This is a method of gathering information by noticing and observing the people, events, and objects. The analyst visits the organization to observe the working of current system and understands the requirements of the system. Advan tages  I t is a direct m ethod for gleaning inform ation.  I t is useful in situation where authenticity of data collected is in question or when com plex ity of certain aspects of system prevents clear ex planation by end-users.

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 I t produces m ore accurate and reliable data.  I t produces all the aspect of docum entation that are incom plete and outdated. Joint Application Development (JAD) I t is a new technique developed by I BM which brings owners, users, analysts, designers, and builders to define and design the system using organized and intensive workshops. JAD trained analyst act as facilitator for workshop who has some specialized skills. Advan tages of J AD  I t saves tim e and cost by replacing m onths of traditional interviews and follow-up m eetings.  I t is useful in organizational culture which supports joint problem solving.  F osters form al relationships am ong m ultiple levels of em ployees.  I t can lead to developm ent of design creatively.  I t Allows rapid developm ent and im proves ownership of inform ation system . Secondary Research or B ackground Reading This method is widely used for information gathering by accessing the gleaned information. I t includes any previously gathered information used by the marketer from any internal or external source. Advan tages  I t is m ore openly accessed with the availability of internet.  I t provides valuable inform ation with low cost and tim e.  I t act as forerunner to prim ary research and aligns the focus of prim ary research.  I t is used by the researcher to conclude if the research is worth it as it is available with procedures used and issues in collecting them . Feasibility Study Feasibility Study can be considered as preliminary investigation that helps the management to take decision about whether study of system should be feasible for development or not.  I t identifies the possibility of im proving an ex isting system , developing a new system , and produce refined estim ates for further developm ent of system .  I t is used to obtain the outline of the problem and decide whether feasible or appropriate solution ex ists or not.  T he m ain objective of a feasibility study is to acquire problem scope instead of solving

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