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Note for BASICS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - BCE By neesha yadav

  • BASICS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - BCE
  • Note
  • Chattisgarh swami vevekandand technical university bhilai - CSVTU
  • Civil Engineering
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Nayasha Yadav
Nayasha Yadav
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Text from page-1

UNI T1 BUI LDI NGMATERI ALS Bui l di ngMat er i al s: Mat er i al st hatar eusedf ort heconst r uct i onofengi neer i ng st r uct ur esl i kebui l di ng,r oadway s,br i dges,dams,t unnel s,monument set c. ,ar e knownasbui l di ngmat er i al s. Eg.: Br i cks, St oneset c. Def i ni t i on: Br i cksmaybedef i nedasasmal l ,sol i dorcor edbui l di nguni ti nt he shapeofar ect angul arbl ockofi nor gani c,nonmet al l i csubst ancesofmi ner al or i gi n. Thesear emadear t i f i ci al l ybymoul di ngcl ayi nr ect angul arbl ocksofst andar d si ze,whi char edr i edandl at erbur ntt oahi ght emper at ur et omaket hem dense andcompact . Mer i t s/ Adv ant agesofUsi ngbr i cks: Br i cki soneoft heol destmanuf act ur ed bui l di ngmat er i al .Ther easonsf oraccept ancear easf ol l ows: i . i i . i i i . i v . v . v i . v i i . v i i i . i x. Li ghti nwei ght Easi l yav ai l abl e goodst r engt h Dur abi l i t y Lowcost Fi r er esi st ant Uni f or m si ze, hencedonotneedanydr essi ng I nsul at i ng Noneedofski l l edl abour Nomi nalandAct ualsi ze/ Di mensi onsofModul arandTr adi t i onalBr i cks Tr adi t i onalBr i cks: Br i ckswhi char emadei ndi f f er entsi zesaccor di ngt ot he cust om/ t r adi t i onandpr act i ceofl ocal i t yar eknownast r adi t i onalbr i cks.These ar enotofst andar dsi z e. Modul arBr i cks: Br i cksofst andar dsi ze/ di mensi onsar eknownasmodul arbr i cks.

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NeedofModul arBr i cks: i . i i . I fbr i cksar eofv er yl ar gesi ze,i ti sdi f f i cul tt obur nt hem pr oper l yandwi l l bedi f f i cul tt obepl aced, duet ot hei rheav ywei ght . I fbr i cksar et oosmal l ,mor equant i t yofmor t arwi l lber equi r ed,maki ng t hepr ocessuneconomi cal . S. No. Ty peofBr i ck Act ual Si ze( cm) Nomi nal Si ze ( cm) 1. Modul arBr i cks 19×9×9 20×10×10 2. Tr adi t i onal Br i cks 21×10×7. 5 23×11. 4×7. 6 Not e: Nomi nalsi zei st heact ualsi z eoft hebr i ckal ongwi t ht hemor t art hi ckness. Thus, t henomi nal si zei ncl udest hemor t art hi ckness[ AsperBI S] . Themassoft hebr i cknor mal l yv ar i esf r om 33. 5Kg. FROG: Fr ogi samar kofdept hofabout10mm t o20mm whi chi spl acedonr aw br i ckdur i ng moul di ng. I tser v est wopur poses: i . Usedt oi ndi cat et het r adenameoft hemanuf act ur er . i i . I nBr i ckwor k, t hebr i cksar el ai dwi t hf r ogupper most .I tt husaf f or dsakey f ormor t arwhent henextbr i cki spl acedov eri t . Fr ogi smadeont her awbr i ckwi t ht hehel pofpal l et( t hi npi eceofwood)boar ds andawoodenbl ock( moul di ngst ock/ st ockboar d) . GoodBr i ckEar t h Def i ni t i on: Agoodbr i ckear t hshoul dbeami xt ur eofpur ecl ayandsandsot hat whenpr epar ed wi t h wat er ,can beeasi l ymoul ded and dr i ed wi t houtshr i nki ng,cr acki ng or war pi ng.

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Const i t uent sofGoodBr i ckEar t h i . Si l i ca : 50t o60% i i . Al umi na : 20t o30% i i i . Li me : 2t o5% i v . Oxi deofI r on: 5t o6%,>7% v . Magnesi a : <1% Si l i caandAl umi naar et hemai ncomponent sofGBEandshoul dbemi xedi nsuch pr opor t i ont hatwhenmi xedwi t hwat er ,f or msapl ast i cconsi st encyal l owi ng i t sel ft obemoul dedeasi l yt ot her equi r edshape. * Ot hercomponent sar eaddedt oenabl et hemoul dedmi xt odr ywi t hout shr i nkageorcr acki ng. 1. Si l i ca: al umi na. Pr esentei t herf r ee,assand,ori ncombi nat i on,assi l i cat eof Funct i on: Pr ev ent scr acki ng,shr i nki ngandwar pi ngofr awbr i cks,t hus,i mpar t i ng uni f or m shape, pr oduceshar dness, r esi st ancet oheatanddur abi l i t y . I fi nexcess:I tdest r oy st hecohesi onbet weenpar t i cl es,andt hebr i ckbecomes br i t t l e. 2. Al umi na: Chi efconst i t uentofcl ay ;f i nel ygr ai nedmi ner alcompoundwhi ch i spl ast i cwhenwet ,andi scapabl eofbei ngmoul dedt oanyshape.Ondr y i ng,i t l osesi t spl ast i ci t yandbecomeshar d. Funct i on: Bur ni ngofbr i ckcausest hef usi onofi t sconst i t uent st her ebymaki ngi t homogenous, har derandst r onger . I fpr esenti nexcess: I fpr esenti nexcesswi t hi nadequat equant i t yofsand,t he r aw br i ckshr i nks,cr acksandwar psdur i ngdr y i ngandbecomest oohar dwhen bur ned. 3. Li me:Asmal lquant i t yofl i mei susef ul / desi r abl e.I tshoul dbepr esenti na v er yf i nepowder edst at ebecauseev ensmal lpar t i cl esoft hesi zeofapi nhead causef l aki ngoft hebr i ck. Funct i on : I tr educesshr i nkageon dr y i ng,act sasaf l uxdur i ng t hebur ni ng pr ocessenabl i ngt hesi l i capar t i cl est omel tandt husbi ndi ngt hepar t i cl esof br i ckt oget her .

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I fi nexcess:I fpr esenti nl umps( ofunhy dr at edl i me)maycauseunsi ght l y def ect sonbr i ckwal l scal l edl i mepops.Thel umpsofl i mear econv er t edi nt o qui ckl i meaf t erbur ni ngandt hi squi ckl i mesl akesandexpandsi npr esenceof moi st ur e.Suchanact i onr esul t si nspl i t t i ngofbr i cksi nt opi eces. 4. Oxi deofI r on: I tact sasf l ux.Thecol ourofbr i ck, r angi ngf r om l i ghty el l ow t or ed, dependsupont hecont ent sofi r onoxi des. Funct i on : I mpar t s har dness and st r engt h, i ncr eases t he dur abi l i t y & i mper meabi l i t yoft hebr i ck; i mpar t scol our . I fi nexcess:I fpr esenti nexcess,conv er t st her edcol ourofbr i ckt odar kbr own orbl uecol our , whi chi snotgood. Ont heot herhand, i nsuf f i ci enti r onoxi demakest hebr i cky el l ow. 5. Magnesi a–Shoul dbepr esenti nsmal l quant i t y Funct i on: I mpar t sy el l owt i nget ot hebr i ck; decr easesshr i nkage. I fi nexcess: Causesbr i ckt odecay . Har mf ul Const i t uent sofbr i ckear t h Fol l owi ngar et hei ngr edi ent s,t hepr esenceofwhi chr ender st her esul t i ngbr i ck unsui t abl ef orconst r uct i on. 1. Pebbl esofst oneandgr av el : Thei rpr esencedoesnotal l owt heuni f or m and t hor oughmi xi ngofcl ay , r esul t i ngi nweakandpor ousbr i cks. Hence, shoul dber emov edf r om t heear t husedf ormoul di ngofbr i cks. 2. Veget at i onandOr gani cMat t er :I t spr esencehel psi nbur ni ng,buti fnot t hor oughl ybur ned,por ousbr i cksar ef or med,duet ot heev ol ut i onofgases dur i ngt hebur ni ngofcar bonaceousmat t erpr esenti nt hesei ngr edi ent s. Hence,t houghbur ni ngofsuchbr i cksi snecessar ysot hatal lt hesegases ar er emov ed. 3. Al kal i es:Al kal i es,mai nl yi nt hef or m ofsodaandpot ash,l owert hef usi on poi ntofcl ay .I fpr esenti nexcesst heycauset hebr i ckst of use,t wi standwar p dur i ngbur ni ngandt husdi sf i gur et hem. Al so,al kal i nesal t sactl i kehy gr oscopi csubst ances,absor bi ngmoi st ur e f r om t heat mospher ecr eat i ng damp condi t i onsand ondr y i ng l eav ebehi nd gr ay i sh whi t e deposi t s.Thi si st er med as ef f l or escence whi ch soi l st he appear anceoft hebui l di ng. 4. Li meSt oneandKankar:Li mei nsmal lquant i t yandt hatt oof i nel ydi v i ded i sdesi r abl e.Buti fpr esenti nl umpsmaycauseunsi ght l ydef ect sonbr i ckwal l s.

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