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Introduction to Python

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Acknowledgement It is mine proud privilege and duty to acknowledge the kind of help and guidance received from several people in preparation of this report. It would not have been possible to prepare this report in this form without their valuable help, cooperation and guidance. First and foremost, I wish to record my sincere gratitude to Dr. Satya Bhushan Verma for his constant support and encouragement in preparation of this report and for making available library and laboratory facilities needed to prepare this report. The seminar on “Introduction To Python” was very helpful to me in giving the necessary background information and inspiration in choosing this topic for the seminar. Their contributions and technical support in preparing this report are greatly acknowledged. Last but not the least, I wish to thank our parents for financing our studies in this University as well as for constantly encouraging us to learn engineering. Their personal sacrifice in providing this opportunity to learn engineering is gratefully acknowledged. Shivansh Singh

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1. WHAT IS PYTHON Python is a widely used high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C++ or Java. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library. Python interpreters are available for installation on many operating systems, allowing Python code execution on a wide variety of systems. 2.Scripting versus Programming i. Scripted languages are interpreted within another program (like JavaScript is put within HTML and then interpreted by the browser). Programmed languages are compiled into a more compact form that does not need to be interpreted by another application in the same way. The compiled result is standalone. ii. Scripted languages may tend to be easier to learn, and can take less code to get something done. Partly this is because programming languages may have more traditional structures and sometimes more rigorous or complex concerns to address. iii. "The main difference between the programming language and scripting language is that the scripting language does not create any binary files (executables) and no memory will be allocated. For programming languages on compilation make binaries (either executables or libraries). These binaries executes from system’s memory. Scripting language is a very limited, high-level language that is application-specific."

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3.HISTORY o Python laid its foundation in the late 1980s. o The implementation of Python was started in the December 1989 by Guido Van Rossum at CWI in Netherland. o In February 1991, van Rossum published the code (labeled version 0.9.0) to alt.sources. o In 1994, Python 1.0 was released with new features like: lambda, map, filter, and reduce. o Python 2.0 added new features like: list comprehensions, garbage collection system. o On December 3, 2008, Python 3.0 (also called "Py3K") was released. It was designed to rectify fundamental flaw of the language. o ABC programming language is said to be the predecessor of Python language which was capable of Exception Handling and interfacing with Amoeba Operating System. o Python is influenced by following programming languages: o ABC language. o Modula-3 4. Why was python created.. About the origin of Python, Guido Van Rossum wrote in 1996: Over six years ago, in December 1989, I was looking for a "hobby" programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. My office ... would be closed, but I had a home Computer, and not much else on my hands. I decided to write an interpreter for the new scripting language I had been thinking about lately: a descendant of ABC that would appeal to Unix/C hackers. I chose Python as a working title for the project, being in a slightly irreverent mood (and a big fan of Monty Python's Flying Circus).

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5.Scope of Python 5.1. Science(Bioinformatics) Python (along with R, Perl) is one of the principle languages in the field. The applications of Python in bioinformatics include (but are not limited to) accessing databases, sequence analysis, SNP data analysis, working with genome references and annotations, performing statistical analysis, simulations, vizualization, building phylogenetic trees, exploring macromolecular structures, handling microarray data, etc. 5.2 System Administration(UNIX) UNIX is the most powerful OS ever created. But if you look into current situation, Linux (a kernel formed based on MINUX) is holding more than 95% of Unix/Linux market.For developers CentOS, Ubuntu are best. For System Administration RHEL, SuSe will do good. Wheel scripting was an additional add-on for a system admin, but DevOps and Cloud is changing the industry completely. So learn Python instead of Shell scripting. 5.3 Web Application Development Python lets you develop a web application without too much trouble. It has libraries for internet protocols like HTML and XML, JSON, e-mail processing, FTP, IMAP, and easy-touse socket interface. Yet, the package index has more libraries: Requests – An HTTP client library BeautifulSoup – An HTML parser Feedparser – For parsing RSS/Atom feeds Paramiko – For imple3menting the SSH2 protocol Twisted Python – For asynchronous network programming We also have a gamut of frameworks available. Some of these are- Django, Pyramid. We also get microframeworks like flask and bottle. • • • • • 5.4 Testing Scripts Python programming is used to write test scripts and test mobile devices performance. It is one of the most versatile languages these days. Python programmers are most demandable in IT industry these days and get paid more compare to other language programmer. Thus future of Python programming language is bright and secured

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