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SUB STRUCTURE DESIGN TEXT BOOK

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Chapter 5 SUBSTRUCTURES Smith Bridge, Houlton West Bridge, Fairfield-Benton

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CHAPTER 5 - SUBSTRUCTURES 5 SUBSTRUCTURES....................................................................................5-1 5.1 Terminology.........................................................................................5-1 5.2 General................................................................................................5-2 5.2.1 Frost .............................................................................................5-2 5.2.2 Seal Cofferdams...........................................................................5-4 5.2.3 Cofferdams...................................................................................5-5 5.2.4 Concrete Joints ............................................................................5-5 5.3 Spread Footings ..................................................................................5-6 5.3.1 Footing Depth...............................................................................5-7 5.3.1.1 Bearing Materials ..................................................................5-7 5.3.1.2 Footings on Bedrock .............................................................5-7 5.3.1.3 Frost Protection .....................................................................5-8 5.3.1.4 Scour Protection....................................................................5-8 5.3.2 Bearing Capacity ..........................................................................5-8 5.3.3 Settlement ....................................................................................5-8 5.3.4 Stability.........................................................................................5-9 5.3.5 Ground Water Condition.............................................................5-10 5.3.6 Drainage Considerations ............................................................5-10 5.3.7 Seismic Considerations ..............................................................5-10 5.4 Abutments .........................................................................................5-10 5.4.1 Conventional Abutments ............................................................5-10 5.4.1.1 General Design Requirements ............................................5-10 5.4.1.2 Loads ..................................................................................5-10 5.4.1.3 Backfill.................................................................................5-12 5.4.1.4 Drainage..............................................................................5-12 5.4.1.5 Reinforcement and Structural Design..................................5-13 5.4.1.6 Factors of Safety .................................................................5-13 5.4.1.7 Abutment Spread Footings..................................................5-13 5.4.1.8 Abutments Supported on Pile Foundations .........................5-21 5.4.1.9 Bridge Seat Dimensions......................................................5-21 5.4.2 Integral Abutments .....................................................................5-22 5.4.2.1 Introduction .........................................................................5-22 5.4.2.2 Loads ..................................................................................5-23 5.4.2.3 Maximum Bridge Length .........................................................5-23 5.4.2.4 Pile Capacity and Fixity .......................................................5-24 5.4.2.5 Bridge Length for Pile Supported Abutments ......................5-25 5.4.2.6 Abutment Details .................................................................5-26 5.4.2.7 Alignment ............................................................................5-29 5.4.2.8 Superstructure Design.........................................................5-29 5.4.2.9 Abutment and Wingwall Design...........................................5-29 5.4.2.10 Approach Slabs ...................................................................5-29 5.4.2.11 Drainage..............................................................................5-29 5.4.2.12 Integral Abutment on Spread Footing Design .....................5-31 5.4.2.13 Example Problem ................................................................5-35 5.4.3 Semi-Integral Abutments ............................................................5-37 5.4.4 Approach Slabs ..........................................................................5-38 August 2003 i

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CHAPTER 5 - SUBSTRUCTURES 5.5 Piers ..................................................................................................5-38 5.5.1 Mass Piers..................................................................................5-38 5.5.1.1 Pier Selection Criteria..........................................................5-38 5.5.1.2 Loads ..................................................................................5-39 5.5.1.3 Structural Design.................................................................5-39 5.5.1.4 Geotechnical Design ...........................................................5-40 5.5.1.5 Pier Protection.....................................................................5-40 5.5.2 Pile Bent Piers ............................................................................5-41 5.5.2.1 Pile Bent Use Criteria ..........................................................5-41 5.5.2.2 Loads ..................................................................................5-42 5.5.2.3 Pile Type Selection Criteria .................................................5-44 5.5.2.4 Pile Protection .....................................................................5-45 5.5.2.5 Pile Bent Pier Design Criteria ..............................................5-46 5.6 Retaining Walls..................................................................................5-49 5.6.1 General.......................................................................................5-49 5.6.1.1 Retaining Wall Type Selection ............................................5-49 5.6.1.2 Service Life .........................................................................5-50 5.6.1.3 Design Loads ......................................................................5-50 5.6.1.4 Design Considerations ........................................................5-51 5.6.1.5 Aesthetics............................................................................5-51 5.6.2 Gravity Retaining Walls ..............................................................5-51 5.6.2.1 Design Section ....................................................................5-51 5.6.2.2 Earth Loads .........................................................................5-52 5.6.3 Gravity Cantilever Retaining Walls .............................................5-52 5.6.3.1 Design Section Gravity Cantilever Retaining Walls .............5-52 5.6.3.2 Earth Loads .........................................................................5-53 5.6.4 Non-Gravity Cantilever Retaining Walls .....................................5-54 5.6.5 Prefabricated Proprietary Walls ..................................................5-54 5.6.5.1 Proprietary Retaining Walls .................................................5-54 5.6.5.2 Prefabricated Bin Type Retaining Walls ..............................5-55 5.6.5.3 Modular Block Walls............................................................5-56 5.6.5.4 MSE Walls...........................................................................5-57 5.6.5.5 PS&E for Project with Proprietary Walls..............................5-60 5.6.6 Anchored Walls ..........................................................................5-61 5.6.6.1 CON/SPAN Wingwall.........................................................5-61 5.6.6.2 Metal Structural Plate Headwall/Wingwall ...........................5-61 5.6.7 Gabions ......................................................................................5-62 5.7 Piles...................................................................................................5-62 5.7.1 H-Piles........................................................................................5-62 5.7.1.1 Axial Capacity......................................................................5-62 5.7.1.2 Lateral Capacity ..................................................................5-64 5.7.1.3 Layout and Construction .....................................................5-66 5.7.2 Concrete Piles ............................................................................5-66 5.7.3 Pipe Piles ...................................................................................5-67 5.7.4 Downdrag ...................................................................................5-68 5.7.5 Pile Testing Programs ................................................................5-69 August 2003 ii

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CHAPTER 5 - SUBSTRUCTURES 5.8 Drilled Shafts .....................................................................................5-70 5.9 Embankment Issues ..........................................................................5-71 5.9.1 Embankment Settlement ............................................................5-71 5.9.2 Embankment Stability.................................................................5-71 5.9.3 Embankment Bearing Capacity ..................................................5-72 5.9.4 Embankment Seismic Considerations ........................................5-72 References ......................................................................................................5-74 Table 5-1 Depth of Frost Penetration.................................................................5-3 Table 5-2 Minimum Factors of Safety ..............................................................5-13 Table 5-3 Maximum Bridge Length for Fixed Head Abutment (feet) ................5-25 Table 5-4 Maximum Bridge Length for Pinned Head Abutment (feet)..............5-25 Table 5-5 Minimum Embedment Lengths ........................................................5-31 Table 5-6 Allowable Structural Axial Capacity of Selected H-Pile Sections .....5-63 Table 5-7 Factors of Safety for Allowable Geotechnical Axial H-Pile Capacity 5-64 Table 5-8 Lateral Capacity and Depth to Fixity for H-Pile Sections in Sand ....5-64 Table 5-9 Lateral Capacity and Depth to Fixity for H-Pile Sections in Clay......5-65 Figure 5-1 Maine Design Freezing Index Map ...................................................5-3 Figure 5-2 Fixed Head Integral Abutment Details-Steel Superstructures.........5-27 Figure 5-3 Integral Abutment Details – Precast Superstructures .....................5-28 Figure 5-4 Thermally Induced Secondary Pile Forces .....................................5-32 Figure 5-5 Maximum Allowable Pile Load Fixed Head Piles............................5-33 Figure 5-6 Maximum Allowable Pile Load Pinned Head Piles .........................5-33 Figure 5-7 Fixed Head Pile Thermally Induced Secondary Pile Forces ...........5-34 Figure 5-8 Pinned Head Pile Thermally Induced Secondary Pile Forces.........5-34 Figure 5-9 Effective Pile Length for Piles in Sand ............................................5-47 Figure 5-10 Effective Pile Length for Piles in Clay ...........................................5-48 Figure 5-11 Retaining Wall Design Section .....................................................5-53 Procedure 5-1 Bearing Pressure on Soil..........................................................5-15 Procedure 5-2 Bearing Pressure on Bedrock ..................................................5-17 Procedure 5-3 Overturning Stability and Sliding ..............................................5-19 Procedure 5-4 Integral Abutment Design Process ...........................................5-30 Example 5-1 Depth of Frost Penetration............................................................5-4 Example 5-2 Pile Supported Integral Abutment ...............................................5-35 August 2003 iii

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