1 HS 210, LIFE SKILLS MODULE 1 THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION The word communication originated from the Latin word “communicare” which means “ to share”. It is the exchange of information between two persons or more. So communication is a social process. Generally, communication is exchange of ideas in an unstructured manner. The process of communication has four elements. Sender Message Medium Receiver Sender is the person who wants to communicate Message is the idea or content of communication Medium is the use of language or symbols for communication Receiver is the person who gets the message. MESSAGE SENDER MEDIUM RECEIVER The process of communication can be represented as follows Ideation SENDER HAS AN IDEA Ideation SENDER CONVERTS IDEAS TO WORDS OR SYMBOLS Encoding MESSAGE TRAVELS THROUGH CHANNEL Transmission DS RECEIVER’S RESPONSE RECEIVER UNDERSTANDS THE MESSAGE Feedback Message Decoding NEED FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1. To Maintain the Social Order Communication is important in a society to understand its customs, beliefs, rules and regulations. Downloaded from Ktunotes.in
2 2. 3. 4. 5. To Help Maintaining Harmoniuos Relationship with Others To Ensure the Flow of Knowledge from Generation to Generation To Share Love and Care to Develop a Family and Society To Make and Maintain Effective Work Culture LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Intrapersonal Communication It is the communication happens within, I e. a person speaks to himself. This takes place when a person thinks something serious to take an important decision, when analyzing a situation, et al. 2. Interpersonal Communication It takes place between two persons where exchange of ideas happen. It can be planned or unplanned. 3. Group Communication It happens in a group to discuss and finalise an outcome. It can be formal and informal in nature depending on the situation. 4. Public Communication It is the communication by a sender to audience. Here, the sender is the leader of the communication process. 5. Mass Communication It is the transmission of message to a large audience through print, visual and audio visual media. There will not be a direct contact between the sender and receiver of the communication. Radio, news paper and TV are the media used for the same. CHANNELS OR FLOW OF COMMUNICATION Information flows in an organisation both formally and informally. The interaction between different individuals working in a company takes place through different channels. On the basis of direction, communication can be divided into three namely i) VERTICAL COMMUNICATION ii) HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION & iii) DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION 1. Vertical Communication It can be divided into two namely downward communication and upward communication. a. Downward Communication It moves from top to bottom i e. from superiors to subordinates. The main function of this is providing direction and control.
3 Eg: communication from a General Manager of a company to Branch Managers. It includes notes, notices, e mails, face to face conversation etc. a. Upward Communication The main purpose of upward communication is to provide feedback on several areas of organisational functioning. It refers to the communication from subordinates to superiors. Eg: a business report from a Branch Manager to the MD of a company. It promotes better working atmosphere within the organisation. b. Horizontal Communication The main objectives of horizontal communication are developing team work and promoting group behavior within an organisation. It takes place between professional groups or people working on same level. It is less formal and less structured than upward communication. It can be carried out through informal discussions, management gossips etc. c. Diagonal Communication It is the product of modern changes in the management as a result of the growing need for equality in the organisation. It doesn’t have any rigid rule to follow. It happens informally in a formal set up. d. Grapevine Communication It is an informal channel of business communication happens in an informal gathering. It is the most recent trend in corporate world to bring the work force to its maximum. USE OF LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION Language is a system of human communication (oral or written) involves the use of meaningful words, to be used by certain people belong to the same linguistic community. Even though we use body language, actions or graphics to communicate, language is very important to communicate effectively. Language expresses observation, thought, feeling and need.
4 While selecting the language to communicate one should be careful about the following, A. B. C. D. E. The nature of the content whether it is complex or simple. Background or content Understand the receiver of the message The readiness of the receiver The purpose of the message To make communication more effective, the following steps can be followed, A. B. C. D. E. F. KISS - Keep It short and Simple Use concrete and specific language Use simple words Deliver the message clearly Speak positively Maintain intimacy with the receiver COMMUNICATION NETWORKS A communication network represents the pattern of interaction between the different members of an oraganisation. Communication network is determined by the nature of organisation, number of persons included, flow of communication and the type of information. 1. Vertical Network It is the communication happens between superior and subordinate. It is formal in nature and the feedback is fast. 2. Circuit Network Messages and feedbacks are sent to and from two persons; not necessarily be superior and subordinate. 3. Chain Network This has the downward movement of communication as a chain of commands to the subordinates. 4. Wheel Network This is highly centralised. Everyone receives commands form the superior and the feedback is fast. 5. Star Network In this all members communicate with each other and it is ideal for team communication.