Phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics which deals with the sounds of speech and their pronunciation. They represent the of written symbols accepted by International Phonetic Association. The phonetic transcription is a convenient device to indicate the way the words are pronounced. In English there is no one to one correspondence between the sounds and the letters of alphabet. The English language has 26 letters of alphabet but as many as 44 sounds. Production of sound depends on two important things 1. Point of articulation 2. Manner of articulation Phonetic sounds are divided into two categories 1. Vowels 2. Consonants Consonants: A consonant sound is a sound that is characterized by a constriction or a closure at one or more points along the vocal tract. Sounds that are articulated with the vibration of the vocal chords are called as voiced sounds and the sounds that are uttered without the vibration of vocal cords are called voiceless sounds. There are 24 consonants among 44 phonetic sounds. S no. Symbol 1. 2. 3. 4. Keyword / b/bachelor , abbey balance /d/ danger, add, daddy /t / tent, tender, attend / k/ knock, book, accept Phonetic Transcription /bæt∫әlәr/ /deindgәr/ /tent/ /buk/
5. /9 / god, dog, regard 6. /p/ pigeon, appear, cop 7. /m/ /pi:dзin/ /mi:9әr/ meager, murmur, drum, 8. /n/ near, drink, turn /niәr/ 9. /ŋ / king, ring, finger /kiŋ/ 10. /dз/ germ, danger, lounge /dзз:m/ 11. /t∫/ chamber, touch, pitch /t∫eimbә(r)/ 12. /s/ sober, tense, cycle / sәubәr/ 13. /z/ zoo, zero, tinsel /zu:/ 14. / З/ pleasure, measure, leisure /pleЗә(r)/ 15. /∫ / show, fish, fashion /∫әu/ /l/ 17. /r/ 18. /v/ 19. /w/ 20. /h/ 21. /f/ 22. /θ / 23. /ð / 24. /j/ linger, tall, tremble 16. /lingәr/ raw, arrow, rare /rב: / vanish, river, live /væni∫/ /w^ndә(r)/ wonder, window, twinkle harmony, haul, ahead /ha:mәni/ laugh, feather, calf /la:f/ thunder, truth, telepathy /θ^ndә(r)/ father, their, /fa:ð ә(r)/ yellow, yonder, yak /jelәu/ Vowels: They are of two kinds – Monophthongs and diphthongs. Of the 12 pure vowels, seven are short and five are long which are categorized on the basis of the duration of their articulation.
Monophthongs: S.No Symbol Key words Phonetic transcription 1 /ә / above, ago, allow /әbәu/ 2 /^/ cut, bulb, fun /k^t/ 3 / a: / dance, farm, calm /da:ns/ 4 / I/ sit, city, milk /sit/ 5 / i:/ sheep, mean, week /∫ i:p/ 6 /e/ ten, wet, bet /ten/ 7 /u/ pull, book, foot /pul/ 8 / u:/ pool, food, room /pu:l/ 9 / ב/ cot, dog, god /k בt/ 10 / ב: / Bought, court, caught /b ב:t/ 11 /æ/ apple, cat, plank /æpl/ 12 / з: / curl, curtain, bird, /k з: l /
Diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds usually involving a quick but smooth movement(glide) from one vowel sound to another often interpreted by listeners as a single vocal sound. There are 8 diphthongs in English. Dipthongs S.No Symbol Key words Phonetic transcription 1. /ei/ mail, pail,tail /meil/ 2. /ai/ mile, file, smile /mai/ 3. /au/ now, town , cow /nau/ 4. /eә/ air, hair, their /eә(r)/ 5. /iә/ fear, tear, near /f iә(r)/ 6. /uә/ poor, tour, pure /puә/ 7. /בi/ coil, oil, toil /kבil/ 8. /әu/ old , go, blow /әuld/ Activity 1. Underline the letter or letters that represent the same sound in each set . i) reason ii) zone iii) lose iv) busy i) should ii) look iii) bush iv) fury i) fair ii) wear iii) bear iv) there